Information Bulletin of the BRICS Trade Union Forum

Monitoring of the economic, social and labor situation in the BRICS countries
Issue 43.2022
2022.10.24 — 2022.10.30
International relations
Foreign policy in the context of BRICS
Lula Backs Argentina for BRICS (Лула поддерживает вступление Аргентины в БРИКС) / Russia, October, 2022
Keywords: brics+

Brazilian presidential candidate Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva's top foreign policy adviser supports the inclusion of Argentina in the BRICS group of developing nations, which could be a forum for negotiating peace in Ukraine, he told Reuters.

Celso Amorim, foreign minister during Lula's 2003-2010 presidency, had a hand in founding the BRICS group along with Russia, India and China. South Africa joined in 2011 and Argentina has been pushing to become the sixth member.

"It's good to have balance within the BRICS, to have a larger role for Latin America," Amorim said in an interview. "I think the eventual inclusion of Argentina would be positive."

Polls show Lula with a lead of roughly 5 percentage points ahead of an Oct. 30 runoff against President Jair Bolsonaro.

Amorim said he has not discussed any role in an eventual Lula government, but he continues to discuss policy matters regularly with the leftist former president.

Regarding the Ukraine war, he said Lula had the disposition and track record to contribute to peace talks.

"He has the conditions to take part in a negotiating effort, which needs to be led by the European Union and United States, but with the participation of China, obviously. Brazil can also be an important country, whose voice resonates in the developing world," Amorim said. "The BRICS as a group could help."

Amorim also said Lula would make Brazil a protagonist in global climate talks if elected, calling for a summit of Amazon rainforest nations in the first half of next year to discuss conservation efforts along with more developed nations.

A third Lula term would open the door for Brazil to re-engage diplomatically with neighboring Venezuela, Amorim said, adding that Bolsonaro and U.S. President Donald Trump achieved little by breaking off relations with Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.

"Isolation, sanctions, blockades, threats of force don't help at all. They only make things difficult," he said.

Asked about reports of human rights violations in Venezuela and Nicaragua, Amorim said: "We will do whatever we can in favor of democracy in a way that is respectful, non-interventionist and not arrogant."


Saudi Arabia reportedly the latest country to be interested in joining BRICS (По сообщениям, Саудовская Аравия - последняя страна, заинтересованная во вступлении в БРИКС.) / Russia, October, 2022
Keywords: brics+

Ahmed Adel, Cairo-based geopolitics and political economy researcher

South African President Cyril Ramaphosa stated, following his recent two-day visit to Saudi Arabia, that the oil-rich desert kingdom wants to join BRICS, a large geopolitical bloc comprising of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Riyadh's reported intentions signals a dramatic potential expansion of the bloc amid growing tensions with the US over the Russia-Ukraine crisis.

"The BRICS nations are going to be meeting in a summit next year under the chairship of South Africa, and the matter is going to be under consideration," Ramaphosa said. "And already, a number of countries or nations have been making approaches to the other member countries, and we've given them the same answer – to say it'll be discussed by the BRICS partners themselves, five of them, and thereafter a decision will be made."

The South African President added: "They (Saudi Arabia) are not the only country [seeking membership in BRICS]," a reference to Egypt, Iran and Argentina.

Saudi Arabia joining BRICS would be significant for the bloc as it is one of the most influential Arab and Muslim countries in the world. It also signifies the Arab World's move away from Washington, with Saudi Arabia particularly being one of the most pro-US countries in previous decades. This demonstrates that the attractiveness of BRICS has grown significantly in recent years, even in face of the West's attempts to isolate Russia because of its military operation in Ukraine.

The relationship between Riyadh and Washington was based on the US being supplied with cheap oil in exchange for Saudi Arabia's security. However, Washington has proven to be an unreliable partner and Saudi Arabia can now more easily find alternative suppliers for security systems, including from BRICS members Russia, India and China.

At the moment, relations between Riyadh and Washington are arguably in a crisis. The Americans are angry that Saudi Arabia and OPEC decided to reduce oil production by two million barrels per day as it leads to higher fuel prices and increased inflation in the US. This is something the Biden administration is desperately trying to avoid right before the November congressional elections.

Just as important, it also weakens Western sanctions on Russia. The expected rise in oil prices, as a result of OPEC's decision, could bring Russia more money than it loses from the EU's sanctions.

It is for this reason that Washington accuses Riyadh of "fuel[ing] Putin's war machine" and why President Joe Biden interprets Saudi Arabia's decision to cut oil production as an insult and is thus threatening consequences. Washington is reconsidering its alliance with Riyadh, and as one of the punitive measures, military aid to Saudi Arabia could be halted or reduced.

Saudi Arabia tried to downplay the importance of its decision and justified it as an action intended to protect its own economic interests. The US, which usually demands other countries to conform to its liberal world view, has ignored Saudi Arabia's breach of human rights against minorities, women, and political opposition for decades. It is likely that Washington will begin a campaign of demonising and pressuring Saudi Arabia for its lack of democracy and human rights.

Differences between the US and Saudi Arabia has been noticeable for a long time. After Iran's attacks on Saudi oil facilities, Riyadh felt abandoned by the US. The Americans, for their part, were enraged by the 2018 killing of regime critic Jamal Khashoggi at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, in which Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman allegedly played a role.

The Saudis have for a long time failed to get the weapons they wanted from the US, such as long-range offensive drones. If the Saudis make a turn towards Russia and China, it is to be expected that Washington's punitive measures will also follow.

Biden does not have the strength to fulfil the wishes expressed by the representatives of the Democratic Party, who are demanding that the delivery of American weapons to Saudi Arabia be suspended. The US president postponed the issue until the November elections. From the president's view, perhaps it is better to delay the issue as it could lead to Riyadh's complete turn towards Russia and China.

None-the-less, Saudi Arabia's state-owned oil company Aramco finalised a deal in March to build a major refinery in China, and then in the same month it was also announced that the Arab country was considering pricing oil deals with China in yuan rather than the US dollar. With the announcement made by Ramaphosa, all signs highlight that Saudi Arabia recognises the world order and system is changing, and for this reason it is boosting its relations with China and BRICS despite pressure and threats from Washington.

China Supports Expansion of BRICS Membership (Китай поддерживает расширение членства в БРИКС) / China, October, 2022
Keywords: brics+

The Chinese Foreign Ministry voiced support for the expansion of BRICS membership after reports about Saudi Arabia showing its intention to join the group that presently comprises Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

Citing South African President Cyril Ramaphosa, South Africa's local media reported that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman "did express Saudi Arabia's desire to be part of BRICS," and Saudi Arabia is "not the only country" seeking BRICS membership.

As the BRICS chair for this year, China actively supports BRICS in starting the membership expansion process and expanding the "BRICS Plus" cooperation, said Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin at a regular press briefing.

Created in 2017, the "BRICS Plus" cooperation has invited leaders of developing countries outside the BRICS countries to join the dialogue.

At the 14th BRICS Summit in June, China said BRICS is not a closed club or an exclusive circle, but a big family of mutual support and a partnership for win-win cooperation.


Russia supports Saudi Arabia joining BRICS — Putin (Россия поддерживает вступление Саудовской Аравии в БРИКС — Путин) / Russia, October, 2022
Keywords: brics+, vladimir_putin, quotation

BRICS is an informal interstate organization that includes Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa

MOSCOW, October 27. /TASS/. Russia supports the accession of Saudi Arabia to the BRICS, Russian President Vladimir Putin said at a plenary session of the Valdai International Discussion Club on Thursday.

"Yes, we support it, but this requires a consensus of all the BRICS countries," he said.

According to him, Saudi Arabia is a rapidly developing country, which is due not only to its leading position in the hydrocarbon market.

"This is also due to the fact that the Crown Prince, the government of Saudi Arabia have very big plans for diversifying the economy, which is very important. They have entire national development plans designed for this goal," the Russian President said.

He expressed confidence that, given the enthusiasm and creativity of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud, these plans will be implemented.

"Therefore, of course, Saudi Arabia deserves to be a member of major international organizations, such as the BRICS, and such as the SCO. Most recently, we determined the status of Saudi Arabia in the SCO and will develop relations with this country both bilaterally and on multilateral platforms" Putin added.

Earlier, after his visit to Saudi Arabia President of South Africa Cyril Ramaposa, said that Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud had expressed the desire of the kingdom to join the BRICS.


BRICS is an informal interstate organization that includes Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The acronym BRICS is derived from the member-countries' names in English. The organization seeks to develop comprehensive cooperation among member countries in the economy, finance, education, science, culture and other areas. The BRICS countries have a major potential for economic growth. They occupy about 30% of the globe's dry land and account for more than 40% of the world's population, almost half of the world's wheat and rice production and about 15% of the world's gold reserves. Their aggregate GDP at purchasing power parity exceeds 54%.

President Ramaphosa congratulates Mr Luiz Inácio Lula Da Silva following successful election(Президент Рамафоса поздравляет г-на Луиса Инасиу Лулу да Силву с успешным избранием) / South Africa, October, 2022
Keywords: cyril_ramaphosa, lula_da_silva
South Africa

President Ramaphosa congratulates Mr Luiz Inácio Lula Da Silva following successful election

President Cyril Ramaphosa has congratulated Mr Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva on his successful election to the position of President of the Republic of Brazil.

Mr da Silva, who served as President of Brazil from 2003 to 2010, won the general election held on 02 October 2022.

President Ramaphosa said South Africa looks forward to working with the Government of Brazil under the leadership of Mr da Silva, adding that the two developing countries share a of number of common challenges and aspirations at the socio-economic level.

President Ramaphosa said South Africa and Brazil cooperate at various levels, including BRICS and numerous country-to-country, inter-regional and global mechanisms.

President Ramaphosa extended his congratulatory message to the people of Brazil for the successful manner in which they conducted the election.

The Possibility of Saudi Arabia Joining the BRICS Shows the World Is Moving on From Western Dominance (Возможность присоединения Саудовской Аравии к БРИКС показывает, что мир уходит от доминирования Запада) / Russia, October, 2022
Keywords: bircs+, expert_opinion
Author: Fyodor A. Lukyanov

South African President Cyril Ramaphosa returned from Riyadh, earlier this week, with news that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had expressed his country's intention to join BRICS.

This is not such a surprise — Argentina and Iran also announced the same in the spring. At this point, we will need to think up more and more complicated acronyms for the expanding association, but that's not the point.

The excitement around BRICS is a sign of the changes taking place in the world.

This group of countries – originally called BRIC, by the way – is an artificial construct invented at the turn of the century by Goldman Sachs analyst Jim O'Neill for practical purposes. Investors needed to "sell" emerging markets, so they used a successful marketing ploy (linking it to building blocks was a nice form of wordplay). With O'Neill's touch, the union was long viewed primarily through an economic prism.

But this perception did not imply the eventual real word rapprochement of the states involved — they are very different, far from each other, they do not need a common framework to enhance economic cooperation, and everything could be done on a bilateral level. Also, the growth rate, which was the initial reason for bringing these countries together, changed — as could have been expected, the upswings were followed by downswings, of varying types.

The concept would have remained an amusing afterthought had it not been re-imagined. Since 2006, BRIC/BRICS has been the format for regular meetings at a ministerial and then the highest political level. As the political community emerged (it should be stressed — strictly informally), a criterion was formed of its own accord.

That BRICS is a group of countries with full sovereignty, i.e.,able to pursue fully independent policies.

This implies not only political autonomy (with no need to be guided by external opinion) but also the economic potential to realize this goal. One that can't be attained by very many of the world's countries.

In the West, today, only the United States seems to have such a right; the rest of the bloc, even the most economically developed ones, voluntarily limit their political sovereignty due to participation in alliances.

That said, the mere fact of a technical "union of sovereigns" did not in itself produce a new framework: Attempts to stimulate economic ties within BRICS were not met with huge enthusiasm. And ideas to turn the group into a formalized counterbalance to the G7 did not resonate, because links to the West were crucial for all members.

However, this situation has changed. The events of 2022, initiated by Moscow, have clearly divided the world into a western part that rallies against Russia,while others take a wait-and-see approach. The West used the entire arsenal of pressure at its disposal to punish Moscow and demonstrate how disobedience is punished.

The result was quite unexpected. All the other countries, especially the big BRICS states or those claiming a role in the world of their own, not only distanced themselves from joining the Western campaign but outright rejected it, despite the fact that such a stance carries the risk of repercussions from the US and its allies.

Of course, this is not a matter of supporting Russia's actions, but rather of rejecting forms of external pressure. And since this is systemic in nature and related to the peculiarities of the world order, ways to counter it require a change in the latter.

This is where it became clear that BRICS has considerable potential. It might be a rather fuzzy grouping, but it's better prepared than anything else for those interested in alternative schemes of international order. The aforementioned fullsovereignty (political and economic) is a prerequisite for these options.

Thus, participation in BRICS becomes a sign of belonging to a world that is emerging beyond established Western dominance. It does not necessarily have to be about confrontation.

It is much more valuable to be able to bypass Western institutions and reduce the risk of interaction with them. For example, by building parallel ways of conducting financial, economic, and trade relations without relying on US or EU-controlled instruments.

Riyadh's desire to join is quite remarkable. Of course, a country with control over significant material resources and the ability to regulate global pricing can afford independent behavior and choose comfortable partners who do not impose a series of conditions on interaction.

A centralized international system, led by a hegemon, is bound to end anyway. This will happen no matter how the Ukraine conflict ends. And, thus, a diversity of formats will be in high demand. The new circumstances will open up prospects for BRICS.

The British author of the acronym could hardly have imagined this scenario twenty years ago, but life is sometimes generous to undertakings that seemed to have frivolous origins.

Investment and Finance
Investment and finance in BRICS
BRICS Bank to allocate up to $30 bln for sustainable development projects in 2022-2026 (Банк БРИКС направит до $30 млрд на проекты устойчивого развития в 2022-2026 годах) / Russia, October, 2022
Keywords: investments, ndb, sustainable_development

Forty percent of the loans will go to climate change mitigation and adaptation projects, including energy transformation, NDB Vice President Zhou Qiangwu said

SHANGHAI, October 26. /TASS/. The New Development Bank (NDB) created by the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) plans to allocate up to $30 bln over the next five years to support global growth and sustainable development projects, Yicai Global reported on Wednesday.

"Forty percent of the loans will go to climate change mitigation and adaptation projects, including energy transformation, NDB Vice President Zhou Qiangwu said on the sidelines of a seminar at the bank's headquarters yesterday. Other key areas include clean energy, transport infrastructure, urban development, water resources management and sanitation, as well as social and digital infrastructure," the report said.

The BRICS countries established the New Development Bank based on an intergovernmental agreement signed at the BRICS Summit in Fortaleza, Brazil, in July 2014. The purpose of the bank's activities is to finance infrastructure projects and sustainable development projects in the BRICS countries and developing countries.

In 2021, the New Development Bank approved the admission of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Uruguay, Bangladesh, and Egypt as new member countries of the bank. Over the years of its operation, the bank has approved more than 90 projects for a total of $32 bln.

Workshop on "Scaling up development finance for a sustainable future" held by NDB in collaboration with Ministry of Finance of China (Семинар «Расширение финансирования развития для устойчивого будущего», проведенный НБР в сотрудничестве с Министерством финансов Китая) / China, October, 2022
Keywords: ndb

On October 25, 2022, the New Development Bank (NDB), in collaboration with the Ministry of Finance of China, hosted a workshop under the theme of "Scaling Up Development Finance for a Sustainable Future". The workshop was held in a hybrid format both at NDB's Headquarters in Shanghai and online.

Two moderated panel sessions, focusing on "Mobilising Resources for Sustainable Development" and "Expanding Development Impact" respectively, explored how the Bank can contribute to global growth and sustainable development by helping address the needs and aspirations of emerging market economies and developing countries (EMDCs). The workshop also discussed various aspects of NDB's General Strategy for 2022-2026, which was approved by the Bank's Board of Governors in May, 2022.

"China, the BRICS Chair of 2022, took the initiative to incorporate the NDB-related topics into the outcomes of this year's summit and expand the Bank's presence. Chinese government always prioritizes and supports the development of NDB. In the 14th BRICS Summit held on June 23, 2022, Chinese President Xi Jinping pointed out that 'We should support greater development of the New Development Bank and a steady process to admit new members'. In the new strategic period, NDB is expected to uphold its mission to serve EMDCs, advance membership expansion with the spirit of openness and inclusiveness, keep improving its institutional governance with high standards. China is always willing to work with all parties to build NDB into a new type of Multilateral Development Institution of the 21 century, and make contribution to the sustainable development of the member countries," said H.E. Mr. Kun Liu, NDB's Governor for China, Minister of Finance, the People's Republic of China, in his address to the workshop.

"Our strategic direction is to become a leading provider of solutions for infrastructure and sustainable development for emerging economies. We aim to maximise the development impact of every single project we finance," said Mr. Marcos Troyjo, President of NDB in his opening address.

The workshop was participated by representatives from governments, diplomatic missions, development finance institutions, academic institutions, private sector entities and other members of the development community.

New Development Bank issued CNY 3 billion bond in the China interbank bond market and completed its second RMB bond programme (Новый банк развития выпустил облигации на сумму 3 млрд юаней на межбанковском рынке облигаций Китая и завершил свою вторую программу выпуска облигаций в юанях.) / China, October, 2022
Keywords: ndb

On October 25, 2022, the New Development Bank (NDB) successfully priced a 3-year CNY 3 billion bond in the China Interbank Bond Market, completing the NDB's second RMB 20 billion bond programme. The bond was priced at the tighter end of its price guidance at a yield of 2.53%.

The net proceeds from the sale of the bond will be used onshore as general corporate resources of the Bank for financing infrastructure and sustainable development projects. Pending their use, the net proceeds from the sale of the bond will be invested as part of the Bank's liquid assets.

"We are very pleased with the successful execution of the RMB 3 bln bond issuance. With this issuance, NDB has now raised the full RMB 20 bln under its existing program. We remain strongly committed to support China's efforts to strengthen its domestic capital markets," said Mr. Leslie Maasdorp, NDB VP & CFO.

"As the NDB continues to expand its operations, the Bank is actively accessing the China Interbank Bond Market, ensuring that sufficient resources are available to meet the NDB's loan requirements in local currency. NDB is planning to register its third RMB bond programme with NAFMII before the end of 2022 deepening its role as a leading issuer of Panda Bonds," added Mr. Leslie Maasdorp.

The Bank of China Ltd. acted as the lead underwriter and the bookrunner of the issuance. Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Ltd., Agricultural Bank of China Ltd., the Export-Import Bank of China and China Construction Bank acted as joint-lead underwriters of the issuance.

World of Work
Transport Development in Russia, Brazil and South Africa (Развитие транспорта в России, Бразилии и ЮАР) / Russia, October, 2022
Keywords: economic_challenges, research

Tatiana Bokova, Intern of the Russian National Committee on BRICS Research – special for InfoBRICS

Transport, as an element of the material infrastructure, contributes significantly to the economic development not only of the country but also of each region. Transport plays an essential role since, first, it creates workplaces; second, it facilitates trade not only within a country but also beyond its borders, and contributes to various inter-regional and inter-state communications. Moreover, transport connects factors of production in a complex network of producer-consumer relations. Every year nations, including BRICS members such as Russia, Brazil and South Africa, develop and improve their country's transport systems.


Russia is the largest state in the world, with over 17 million km2. Transport plays an essential role in such a large country, naturally assisting in the movement of freight, passenger transport, and so on. Currently, Russia has one of the largest and most complex transportation systems comprising highways, railways, airlines, trunk pipelines, navigable river, lake and sea routes.

The most common means of transport in the Russian are motorways, railways and pipelines, which account for 98.4% of all freight shipments. According to the latest data, total freight traffic has reached 5669.1 billion tonne-kilometres and airlines could carry over 128 million passengers, around one-third of the total passenger traffic.

Rail transport accounts for the largest share of passenger numbers, at 82%, mainly due to relatively low cost of transportation, as well as the accessibility of this means of transport. The total length of active railways in Russia is over 85,000 km. Russian Railways has most of Russia's railway assets, owning 99% of the infrastructure industry.

Road transport is also well developed. According to the latest data, the total length of Russia's roads has reached 1.529 million km. Every year, Russian cities are building more roads and highway connections. Public transport is also very important and popular. There are over 10 thousand bus routes between the cities, which carry over 700 million passengers each year. Public transport in Russia is widely available to use. Big cities like Moscow and St. Petersburg have dozens of heavily used bus, metro and tram lines; in fact, in Moscow alone, it makes an average of 19 million public transport journeys each day.

The government is taking steps to improve the environment, therefore electric vehicles are being introduced as public transport. For example, there are more than 1,000 electric buses in Moscow now, which is one of the largest fleets of electric buses in Europe. A non-classical means of transport is pipeline transport - the most promising, strategic area with a global impact on all world politics. At the moment, 90% of Russian oil and almost all-natural gas are transported through pipelines. Today there are 75 pipelines in Russia.

Regarding investments in transport infrastructure, the number of public investments in Russia is about 2.2-2.4% of GDP annually. According to the latest data, 1.300 trillion roubles have been allocated for the development of transport systems. Roads make up the largest category of spending, followed by railways. Investing in transport development programmes and national projects, the state benefits by increasing the profitability of labour, saving energy and other material resources that cover costs, contributing to the state's economic growth, increasing competitiveness in the market, etc.


An extensive network of routes and motorways, which exceeds 1.8 million kilometres, mainly defined Brazil's transport system. However, as in other countries, it is supported by a system of water, rail and air transport.

Brazil has the tenth-largest railway network in the world, with a length of nearly 29,000 km, whose construction began in 1854, and over 50,000 km of waterways. There are 37 important ports in Brazil, among which the major port of Latin America is Porto de Santos, São Paulo. As for air transport, São Paulo also has the most significant airport in South America, the Guarulhos International Airport, which has the highest passenger traffic. São Paulo also has the largest public road transport system in Brazil, stretching over 35,000 km.

In terms of urban transport, almost all of Brazil's cities have a bus system, and the larger ones can be reached by high-speed metro or train. Besides urban transportation, cycling is becoming more and more popular every year. The Brazilian government is investing in better facilities for cyclists and introducing bike-sharing programmes in cities such as Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Belo Horizonte.

The Brazilian government strives to invest in transport infrastructure every year. Since the middle of the 20th century, investments in the transport sector have mainly been concentrated in road systems. In 2012, the government launched the Logistics Investment Programme (PIL), which involved linking railways, roads, waterways, airports and other means of transport. In 2019, the Brazilian government launched an initiative to invest in urban public transport. Brazil's Ministry of Regional Development and the National Bank for Economic and Social Development (BNDES) signed an agreement to gather information for medium- and high-capacity public transport projects in Brazilian megacities with a population of over 1 million.

South Africa

South Africa's transport system is the most developed among African countries, and it plays an essential role in promoting economic development not only in its own country but also in its neighbouring states. Like Brazil, railways and roads dominate South Africa, while air and water transport is also developing rapidly.

South Africa has the longest rail and road network in Africa. For example, the latest figures show that South Africa has 276 000 km of roads and 34.1 000 km of railways, more than half of which are electrified. The rail network also connects South Africa to neighbouring countries, with one line leading to Namibia, the other to Botswana and Zimbabwe, and the third linking Johannesburg to the port of Maputo. The highways have an annual passenger volume of around 4.5 million and a freight volume of 3.1 million.

Other means of transport are also worth noting, as they are an integral part of South Africa's national economy. The shipping industry is still developing. For example, 98% of the country's exports are shipped by sea. The major seaports are Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth, which are the most technically equipped in Africa. Durban is the busiest port and the largest container distribution centre in Africa, with an annual throughput of 1.2 million containers.

In terms of air transport, the main international airports in South Africa are Johannesburg, Durban, and Cape Town International Airports. The South African government now faces the challenge of improving transport systems, including aviation infrastructure. The country is investing in projects that can modernise and improve the aviation industry for the country's economic growth. Besides the primary means of transport, South Africa has a strong taxi industry. The government is still taking all necessary measures to integrate the taxi industry into the mainstream of economic development. In addition, the taxi industry also contributes significantly to job creation by providing various direct and indirect workplaces.

Investment in transport systems comes not only from domestic capital, but also from external sources. Since the People's Republic of China is interested in South Africa, it is trying to invest in improving various areas and regions of the country. China has recently implemented larger projects in Africa than subways and express trams. In 2016, for example, a railway linking Kenya's mineral-rich interior provinces to the port of Mombasa was launched, and railways from Ethiopia, Tanzania, Uganda, Djibouti and Rwanda are being laid to Mombasa, providing a shortcut to transport minerals from Africa to China via the Indian Ocean.

Transport systems are comprehensive and formed by various methods, but all of them are important for contributing to the growth of a country's economy. Transport facilitates international contacts, mutually beneficial economic relations and humanitarian help in case of emergencies, it enables access to the cultural achievements of human civilisation and furthers the advancement of society. Russia, Brazil and South Africa promote the sustainable development of transport systems within their countries and implement government policies in this sector. Moreover, states are investing in transport infrastructure because the development of the transport system is strategically important in the economic reality of the country.

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