Information Bulletin of the BRICS Trade Union Forum

Monitoring of the economic, social and labor situation in the BRICS countries
Issue 25.2022
2022.06.20 — 2022.06.26
International relations
Foreign policy in the context of BRICS
Chair's Statement of the High-level Dialogue on Global Development (Заявление Председателя Диалога на высоком уровне по глобальному развитию) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: concluded_agreements, summit

I. On 24 June 2022, the High-level Dialogue on Global Development was held on the margins of the 14th BRICS Summit. It was chaired by President Xi Jinping of the People's Republic of China and attended by President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation, Prime Minister Narendra Modi of the Republic of India, President Cyril Ramaphosa of the Republic of South Africa, Vice President Hamilton Mourão of the Federative Republic of Brazil, President Abdelmadjid Tebboune of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, President Alberto Fernández of the Republic of Argentina, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi of the Arab Republic of Egypt, President Joko Widodo of the Republic of Indonesia, President Seyyed Ebrahim Raeisi of the Islamic Republic of Iran, President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev of the Republic of Kazakhstan, President Macky Sall of the Republic of Senegal, President Shavkat Mirziyoyev of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Prime Minister Hun Sen of the Kingdom of Cambodia, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed Ali of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Prime Minister Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama of the Republic of Fiji, Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob of Malaysia, and Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha of the Kingdom of Thailand.

II. Under the theme "Foster a Global Development Partnership for the New Era to Jointly Implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development", the leaders discussed global development issues of common interest and reached extensive consensus. As Chair of the Dialogue, China will, based on the discussion of the meeting, implement the Global Development Initiative and make joint efforts with attending countries and the broader international community for common development around the world.

Committed to multilateralism. Uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, safeguard the international system with the UN at its core, uphold the international order underpinned by international law and adhere to the principles of sovereign equality and non-interference in other countries' internal affairs. Follow the historical trend of world multipolarity and greater democracy in international relations, build a new type of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness, justice and win-win cooperation, and jointly oppose hegemonism and power politics. Uphold humanity's common values of peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, promote a global governance vision that emphasizes extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, guide reforms of the global governance system with the principle of fairness and justice, and increase the representation and say of emerging markets and developing countries in international affairs, institutions and mechanisms. Work to build an open world economy, step up macro-economic policy coordination, jointly uphold the stable and sound operation of the international economic and financial systems, promote the steady recovery of the world economy, and create a peaceful, stable, open and inclusive environment for international development.

Committed to development. Put development front and center on the international cooperation agenda, stay committed to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and foster united, equal, balanced and inclusive global development partnerships, to usher in a new era for global development featuring balance, benefits shared by all, coordination, inclusiveness, win-win cooperation and common prosperity.

Committed to a people-centered approach. Proceed from the wellbeing of humanity, actively respond to the call of people from across the world for strengthening international development cooperation and achieving common sustainable development, improve their wellbeing, ensure and improve livelihoods through development, pursue people's well-rounded development, and give everyone the equal opportunity to fulfill their full potential with dignity in a healthy environment and enjoy the benefits of development in an equitable manner.

Committed to inclusiveness and benefits for all. Respect the development paths independently chosen by people of different countries, respect the right of all countries to equal participation and equal development, take seriously and address development concerns of developing countries with concrete actions, and reduce inequality among and within countries, leaving no country and no person behind.

Committed to innovation-driven development. Seize the historic opportunities created by the latest round of technological revolution and industrial transformation, speed up efforts to harness scientific and technological achievements to boost productivity, and unleash new impetus for innovation-driven growth. Promote innovation in development philosophy, institutions and science and technology, enhance developing countries' capacity for development and contribute to their leapfrog development.

Committed to harmony between human and nature. Abide by the targets, principles and framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and of its Paris Agreement, improve global environmental governance, actively respond to climate change, accelerate transition to green and low-carbon development, enhance climate adaptation, meet humanity's demands for a beautiful environment and achieve higher-quality and more sustainable development.

Committed to results-oriented actions. Take stronger actions, with both the immediate and long-term interests and both challenges and opportunities in mind. Strengthen communication and coordination on development policies, and deepen international development cooperation, including North-South cooperation, South-South cooperation and triangular cooperation. Support the UN in coordinating global effort for the 2030 Agenda, enhance the monitoring and review of its implementation, encourage UN development agencies and international financial institutions to play their due roles, and coordinate development cooperation at the global, regional and national levels to generate synergy.

III. China will carry out practical cooperation with international partners, particularly developing countries, in the eight areas of poverty reduction, food security, pandemic response and vaccines, financing for development, climate change and green development, industrialization, digital economy, and digital-era connectivity.

1. Improve global governance mechanisms for poverty reduction, and draw greater international attention to poverty reduction. Deepen policy exchanges, experience sharing and practical cooperation on poverty reduction and expand partnerships to eradicate extreme poverty, address pandemic- or conflict-induced poverty and relapse into poverty and multidimensional poverty, promote full employment, and help groups such as youth and women get out of poverty. Strengthen coordination on energy policies, keep energy supply chains secure and stable, and ensure access to affordable energy in developing countries.

2. Enhance cooperation in such areas as food production, storage, transport, processing, and food loss and waste reduction, and improve food self-sufficiency of developing countries, especially the least developed countries. Make the international order for food trade more just and equitable, and keep industrial and supply chains stable and smooth. Deepen cooperation on agricultural technologies, promote transformation of the food system, and realize green and sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas.

3. Deepen anti-pandemic cooperation, step up cooperation on vaccines innovation, research and development as well as joint production and technology transfer, ensure vaccine accessibility and affordability in developing countries, and build a global immunization shield. Promote medical and health cooperation, help developing countries strengthen primary-level public health systems, enhance public health emergency preparedness, and deepen cooperation on communicable disease prevention and treatment and on maternal and child health.

4. Increase financing for sustainable development, urge developed countries to fulfill ODA commitments to developing countries, fully harness the role of multilateral development banks and other international financial organizations to provide more development resources to developing countries, strengthen developing countries' capability of independent development and better match development resources with the actual development needs of developing countries.

5. Enhance international cooperation on climate change, help developing countries to deal with the impact of climate change and increase adaptation capabilities. Strengthen cooperation on ecological and environmental protection and governance, technology transfer and sharing, as well as capacity building, and enhance developing countries' capability of green development and green finance. Deepen cooperation on renewable energy and clean energy, strengthen technology transfer and sharing, and promote the transformation and upgrading of energy mix and energy consumption pattern.

6. Enhance cooperation on industrialization and industrial development, help developing countries improve industrial production capacity and manufacturing, and support the industrialization process in Africa. Strengthen industrial resilience and cooperation on industrial and supply chains, and promote international cooperation on smart manufacturing and green industrialization to achieve a new type of industrialization and leapfrog development.

7. Strengthen digital capacity building and bridge the digital divide. Promote international cooperation on digital industries development and digitalization of traditional industries, promote the integration of digital technology and the real economy, empower the transformation and upgrade of traditional industries with digital technology, bolster pandemic response and economic recovery and growth through digital means, and enhance coordinated digital and green transformation and development. Harness digital technology to promote poverty reduction, and conduct cooperation in such areas as e-commerce for farmers.

8. Promote digital-era connectivity. Strengthen cooperation on customs services digitalization. Promote "Smart Customs, Smart Borders, Smart Connectivity" to enhance connectivity among customs authorities and other stakeholders along supply chains. Improve the level of digitalization in provision of public services, and strengthen international cooperation in such areas as online education. Step up data cooperation and sharing for sustainable development goals monitoring and evaluation to promote more science-based implementation of the 2030 Agenda. Strengthen knowledge sharing and development policy communication and encourage people-to-people exchanges, including those among youth and women, to create strong synergy for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda.

IV. China will take a series of concrete actions under the framework of the Global Development Initiative as deliverables of this Dialogue (list attached), including upgrading China's South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund into the Global Development and South-South Cooperation Fund, with an additional input of US$1 billion on top of the existing US$3 billion, enhancing support for the United Nations Peace and Development Trust Fund established by China, issuing a Global Development Report, and establishing a Global Development Promotion Center and a Global Knowledge Network for Development. We welcome the participation of all attending countries and the broader international community.

V. The participating leaders expressed appreciation to China for hosting the High-level Dialogue on Global Development and issuing the list of deliverables, and expressed readiness to strengthen cooperation on accelerating the implementation of the 2030 Agenda and achieving common sustainable development.

Deliverables of the High-level Dialogue on Global Development

China will take the following measures in collaboration with partners to support global development:

1. Setting up a Global Alliance for Poverty Reduction and Development (GAPRD) to promote sharing of best practices and international cooperation on poverty reduction.

2. Launching an International NGOs Network for Poverty Reduction Cooperation.

3. Carrying out a series of dialogues on development experience sharing to help developing countries enhance capacity building for sustainable development.

4. Deepening the collaboration between China and the United Nations Office for South-South Cooperation on the Seminar Series on "South-South Cooperation in Cross-Border E-commerce for Poverty Eradication and Global Sustainable Development".

5. 100,000 training opportunities to be provided by China for other developing countries to facilitate post-COVID economic recovery and social development.

6. Launching a Food Production Enhancement Action, to further agricultural production and technical cooperation between China and other developing countries to help improve their food production capacity and enhance food self-sufficiency.

7. Holding the World Conference on Globally Important Agriculture Heritage Systems (GIAHS), and launching an initiative for agrarian civilization protection.

8. Implementing the Chemical Earth Big Science Program, to jointly build a Global Geochemical Baselines Network with other developing countries, which will provide big data support for protecting and utilizing green land and increasing the output and quality of agricultural products in these countries.

9. Training programes for Pacific Island Countries on food production, eco-agriculture and other areas via the China-Pacific Island Countries Demonstration Center for Agricultural Cooperation to help enhance food security in relevant countries.

10. Establishing an International Vaccines Research, Development and Innovation Alliance, to deepen research and development cooperation on vaccines to improve vaccines self-sufficiency of developing countries.

11. Continuing with China's Brightness Action, the Heart-to-Heart Journey and other "small but beautiful" free medical programs for other developing countries, and stepping up cooperation between paired-up hospitals in China and Africa. By 2030, China will send 5,000 professionals of China Medical Team to other developing countries in need to help build up their capacity in infectious diseases response and medical treatment.

12. Making full use of relevant funds to support United Nations development agencies in carrying out practical projects in developing countries to accelerate implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

13. Officially launching the China-FAO South-South Cooperation Trust Fund Phase III of US$50 million.

14. Upgrading China's South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund into the Global Development and South-South Cooperation Fund, with an additional input of US$1 billion on top of the existing US$3 billion, to support Global Development Initiative cooperation to accelerate the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in developing countries.

15. Enhancing support for the United Nations Peace and Development Trust Fund established by China to support Global Development Initiative cooperation.

16. Promoting to establish the Global Clean Energy Cooperation Partnership. China will hold the International Forum on Energy Transitions and explore the establishment of the International Coalition for Energy Transitions.

17. Promoting the Blue Partnership. China will hold a series of events, and support sustainable use of marine resources and capacity building in other developing countries.

18. Jointly launching the Bamboo as a Substitute for Plastic Initiative with International Bamboo and Rattan Organization (INBAR) to reduce plastic pollution and address climate change.

19. Establishing the Global Network for Sustainable Forest Management to promote ecosystem conservation and forest economy.

20. Advancing the Partnership for New Industrial Revolution to help improve developing countries' capacity to seize the opportunities brought about by the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

21. Launching a World Vocational and Technical Education Development Conference and establishing a World TVET League.

22. Launching the ICT Capacity Building Programs for Developing Countries, with a view to improve application of information technology and capacity of telecommunications technology of relevant countries.

23. Holding the Global Development Initiative Digital Cooperation Forum and the 2022 Global Digital Economy Conference to advance cooperation on digital technology application.

24. Hosting the United Nations World Data Forum 2023 by China.

25. Launching a Digital Literacy and Skills Improvement Initiative.

26. Working with the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) to implement projects on accelerating the transition to electric mobility for public transport and Smart Cities Innovation Lab.

27. Carrying out cooperation on "Smart Customs, Smart Borders, Smart Connectivity" to promote connectivity among customs authorities and other stakeholders along supply chains.

28. Launching a Sustainable Development Satellite Constellation Plan, developing and sharing data and information for Sustainable Development Goals monitoring.

29. Holding a World Youth Development Forum and jointly initiating the Action Plan for Global Youth Development.

30. Setting up a Global Development Promotion Center, developing a project pool and holding a Forum on Global Action for Shared Development.

31. Issuing a Global Development Report.

32. Establishing a Global Knowledge Network for Development and holding a Global Development Forum.
Russian Ambassador to China Expects BRICS to Play Leading Global Role (Посол России в Китае рассчитывает, что БРИКС будет играть ведущую глобальную роль) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: expert_opinion, quotation

Security cooperation will be high on the agenda of this year's BRICS summit, Russian Ambassador to China Andrey Denisov told CGTN in an interview, sharing his thoughts about how BRICS members can cooperate and strengthen the group in a time of global uncertainty.

CGTN: The theme of this year's BRICS summit is "Foster High-quality BRICS Partnership, Usher in a New Era for Global Development". What's the significance of this agenda and what's your expectation?

Denisov: Our expectations are great, and preparatory work gives us reasons to have high expectations.

The world situation is very vulnerable, that's why whether we like it or not, all the BRICS activities have to reflect vulnerabilities. That's why our main desire, our main objective is how to withstand and how to resist those vulnerabilities and how to mitigate the impact of the current situation on the development of national economies of our countries, and regional and global economies as a whole.

CGTN: BRICS initially focused on economic and regional affairs, but it's now expanding cooperation in politics and security as well. What do you think BRICS members can do to boost regional security?

Denisov: The initial stimulus and motive to set up the group was economic, and coordination of trade and economic policies, but life is life, how can we avoid, skip dealing with political and security issues in this vulnerable world? So that's why politics and security cooperation is one of the priorities of the whole BRICS agenda.

This year, in particular, we have convened quite a number of meetings together with international institutions like, for example, the UN Office of Counter-Terrorism, which was very good, very helpful to the BRICS countries [on] how to deal with counter terrorism in global scale.

CGTN: As the conflict between your country and Ukraine continues, we've seen the U.S. impose a slate of sanctions to strangle Russia's economy. What do you think BRICS members can do to reduce dependence on the U.S. dollar and protect themselves against U.S. economic pressure?

Denisov: Nobody can deny for a group of countries, we call it "political West" is the reason, motive and opportunity to maintain superior position in global economy, to pretend to carry further their hegemonic approach in international politics, that the Ukrainian conflict is an instrument for these countries, to distort Russia's economy, to bring it to distortion and suffocation, that's reality.

And we face it with open eyes. One of the side effects of this policy is the fact that more and more countries can see that aggressive approach can be moved towards them as well, those who pursue this kind of hegemonic policy will never stop to break any agreement to break any cooperation mechanism, in order to achieve their goals, sometimes it even hurt themselves and don't stop, because the sanctions they imposed on Russia, my country, sometimes hurt them, bring harm to their economies, and that's where I can remind a very good Chinese saying "to lift stone only to drop on their own feet."

The role and the force of U.S. dollar as international currency is going down now and we need to replace, to substitute something which can work, not just absence, because it is very far to seek to go to the absence of U.S. dollar, but if it goes weaker, then we need to substitute in order to prevent economic loss, that's just pragmatic, non-political and timely demand for all the countries, for economies engaged in global, regional economic cooperation.

Support BRICS expansion

Denisov said all five BRICS countries had major roles to play not only within the group and in their respective regions, but globally.

CGTN: Chinese President Xi Jinping said: "It is more than ever important for emerging markets and developing countries to strengthen solidarity and cooperation. The five BRICS nations need to engage in dialogue and exchanges with more emerging markets and developing countries." The BRICS bloc is supporting this policy. What's your view on BRICS expansion?

Denisov: We support the idea. In today's turbulent world, countries need to coordinate their politics and if they feel there's a need to keep closer to each other, then why don't do it?

In the international institutions, groups and organizations, there's a kind of dividing on different groups, and launching some kind of discussion, which led to practical results only if they're resolved on majority, but it is not the way to find out proper decisions in international organizations based on majority only, because the key is consensus, the key is common view, the key is agreement, how to deal on collective bases with threats and challenges of time of the 21st century.

China and my country and other member states will understand that it's a process. We need to select, we need to determine which countries are both ready and eager to be members, then we can launch a process which also takes time, because it is a judicial process. Countries engaged, they need to join all the agreements, all the documents, all of the basic principles of functioning of BRICS.

CGTN: Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergey Ryabkov said that BRICS will form the foundation of a new world order, saying "the BRICS states, totaling almost half of the world's population and accounting for a large chunk of the global GDP, will be among the backbones of the new emerging world order." How much potential does the BRICS bloc have as a group?

Denisov: BRICS now have five members now. Those five members are big countries, some they mention, biggest in the world. The share of BRICS in global population is 42 percent, and global space is more than 25 percent.

So that's why five countries only, but a good part of the globe belongs to them. All of us have plenty of natural sources, all of us place a significant role in both world economy, global and regional politics.

All the countries, like Brazil in Latin America, South Africa on African continent are regional leaders, which strongly affect all the regional policies and performance in their regions. Let alone China, India and my country Russia which also play a role in international economy, international security system in the UN activities and so on.

Now China and India are not only leading in terms of population, but in terms of GDP, both are leaders together with the United States. If we take purchasing power indicator, China has already overtaken the United States.

So one day in the nearest future, both China and India will go ahead of the current world economic leader. It doesn't mean that leadership is overwhelming. No, there are some areas where other countries play very significant role and I think that the United States will never, at least in a reasonable future, foreseeable future, will not lose its leading role in technologies and modern technologies, in finance. But at the same time, China and India and my country as well, let alone South Africa and Brazil, are playing significant roles already. To pave the way to the future is not an easy task. But for our countries, five of them, is quite workable.


BRICS+ meeting (Встреча БРИКС+) / Russia, June, 2022
Keywords: vladimir_putin, brics+, speech

Vladimir Putin attended a BRICS+ meeting involving the leaders of several invited states, held via videoconference.

At the BRICS+ meeting (via videoconference).
The meeting's topic is Foster Partnership for Global Development in a New Era Towards Joint Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Taking part in the BRICS+ meeting were President of the People's Republic of China Xi Jinping, Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi, President of the Republic of South Africa Cyril Ramaphosa, Vice President of Brazil Hamilton Mourao, President of Algeria Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Argentina Alberto Fernandez, President of Egypt Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, President of Indonesia Joko Widodo, President of Iran Sayyid Ebrahim Raisi, President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, Prime Minister of Cambodia Hun Sen, Prime Minister of Malaysia Ismail Sabri Yaakob, President of Senegal Macky Sall, Prime Minister of Thailand Prayut Chan-o-cha, President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev, Prime Minister of Fiji Voreqe Bainimarama, and Prime Minister of Ethiopia Abiy Ahmed.

* * *

Speech by the President of the Russian Federation at the BRICS+ meeting

President of Russia Vladimir Putin: Colleagues, friends,

First, I would like to welcome the guests of the BRICS Summit and express gratitude to President Xi Jinping for organising this meeting in such a broad format.

We believe that it is very useful to hold BRICS+ meetings attended by the leaders of states that are interested in developing mutually beneficial cooperation with our association based on a similarity of views on current global political and economic issues and ways of dealing with them.

It is notable that the leaders of the countries who are attending our meeting today stand for developing a truly democratic multipolar world order based on the principles of equality, justice and mutual respect where global trade and finance are free from obstacles and politically driven restrictions.

I would like to point out that the importance of interaction with our partners who share our values has increased dramatically amid the current imbalances in international relations. This situation has been developing for a long time and is the inevitable result of a policy of those who advocate a so-called liberal world order towards eroding international law and undermining multilateral institutions. Seeking to preserve their domination, some countries have been working consistently to replace the existing global architecture that relies on the central role of the United Nations with a rules-based order. But it is not clear who invented these rules and what they are.

Attempts to hinder the development of the states that are unwilling to live according to somebody's rules and the reckless use of illegal sanctions instruments, compounded by the consequences of the coronavirus pandemic, have aggravated the downturn in the global economy.

Global trade is deeply mired in disputes, the settlement of which is deviating increasingly further from WTO norms and principles. Our colleagues mentioned the WTO today, but we know well what turn the situation within that organisation has taken over the past years. The international monetary system is being destabilised, and industrial, logistics and investment chains are being broken.

Rapid price increases for food, energy and commodities is having a serious socioeconomic effect, especially on the development of countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. Colleagues and friends, I would like to stress once again: this is not the result of the past few months and by no means a consequence of Russia's special military operation to protect Donbass.

Once again, this jump in inflation did not happen yesterday. It has been happening over the past several years as a result of the long-term, and I want to stress this, irresponsible macroeconomic policy of the G7 countries, uncontrolled money creation and accumulated unsecured debts. This process was accelerated by the pandemic when both the supply and demand for goods and services drastically dropped on a global scale.

The food market has been disrupted most severely. I said this at the recent St Petersburg International Economic Forum, and I want to say it again: they printed money, distributed it in their wealthy countries and, like a vacuum cleaner, started scooping up all the food from the global market. Only recently, the United States was a food exporter – a net exporter – but now, I think, their imports are about US$17 billion more than their exports. This is a dismal indicator for food markets around the world.

Meanwhile, the soaring cost of essential agricultural commodities such as grain has hit the developing countries and markets the hardest as this is where bread and flour are vital for the survival of most of the population.

I think it was French Queen Marie Antoinette who, looking over a crowd of starving citizens from her palace, reportedly said with indifference: "If they have no bread let them eat cake."

This is the same cynicism that certain Western countries are now showing by destabilising the global production of agricultural products and dealing with this matter by restricting, for example, supplies of Russian and Belarusian fertilisers and impeding exports of Russian grain to world markets. Speaking of which, we are expecting a good harvest. God willing, everything will be fine and, if we supply 37 million tonnes to the world market this year, we would most likely be able to supply 50 million tonnes of grain. However, it is becoming more difficult to insure the transport that carries grain, bulk carriers, transactions under trade contracts, and so on.

At the same time, they are artificially fuelling hysterics over, say, the suspension of Ukrainian grain shipments via Black Sea ports. Meanwhile, according to American, and our, estimates, this is about 5 or 6 million tonnes of wheat plus 7 million tonnes of corn – this is something, but it does not resolve the problems in the world grain market.

But that's not even the point. I have said publicly many times, and want to emphasise again, that Russia is not preventing the export of Ukraine's grain from its territory; we are ready to ensure safe passage of grain ships via international waters if, of course, the Ukrainian military demines the ports and nearby waters.

In addition, we have a relevant understanding with representatives of the UN Secretariat. As before, we lack one thing – a constructive approach from the current Kiev authorities.

I would like to emphasise that Russia is a major and responsible participant in the world food market. We are certainly willing to continue fulfilling our contractual obligations on the supply of agricultural products, fertiliser, energy and other critical commodities in good faith.

I would like to note that Russia continues rendering humanitarian aid to many countries that need it. Russia recently delivered foodstuffs to Lebanon, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Cuba, Sudan and others, without cost.


I would like to note again that we have every opportunity to build up practical cooperation between the BRICS countries and its partners, the countries represented here. We feel your mutual interest in maintaining close business contacts.

It is equally important for BRICS to expand cooperation with regional associations like ASEAN, the African Union, the Association of Caribbean States, the Gulf Cooperation Council and the Indian Ocean Rim Association.

Of course, serious potential is opening up for cooperation between our states in the context of working in the integration processes between the Eurasian Economic Union and China's huge One Belt One Road infrastructure and trade project.

In general, we are convinced that many serious problems on the global agenda can and must be resolved only by pooling efforts, and this summit is an example of constructive work in this respect.

Thank you for your attention.

BRICS Summit (Саммит БРИКС) / Russia, June, 2022
Keywords: vladimir_putin, speech, summit

BRICS Summit

Vladimir Putin took part in the 14th BRICS Summit, held via videoconference and chaired by China.

June 23, 2022 16:40
Moscow Region

The meeting's topic is Foster High-Quality BRICS Partnership, Usher in a New Era for Global Development.

President of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro, President of the People's Republic of China Xi Jinping, Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi, and President of the Republic of South Africa Cyril Ramaphosa are also taking part in the meeting.

The Beijing Declaration of the 14th BRICS Summit formalises the key agreements of the meeting.

* * *

Speech by the President of the Russian Federation at the BRICS Summit

President of Russia Vladimir Putin: President Xi Jinping, President Ramaphosa, President Bolsonaro, Prime Minister Modi, ladies and gentlemen,

To begin with, I would like to join the previous speakers in thanking President of the People's Republic of China Xi Jinping and all our Chinese friends for their proactive efforts this year to promote our strategic partnership within BRICS.

The countries that form this group have been seeking to step up their cooperation on all global and regional matters. The BRICS format has been consistently increasing its prestige and international influence. This is an objective process, since the five BRICS countries, as we all know, have immense political, economic, scientific, technical and human potential. We have everything we need to work together and achieve results for ensuring global stability and security, sustained growth and prosperity, and better well-being for our people.

I believe that the topic of today's meeting, Foster High-Quality BRICS Partnership, Usher in a New Era for Global Development, is very relevant. Considering the complexity of the challenges and threats the international community is facing, and the fact that they transcend borders, we need to come up with collective solutions. BRICS can make a meaningful contribution to these efforts.

We have repeatedly said that challenges like conflict settlement, the fight against terrorism and organised crime, including the criminal use of new technologies, climate change, and the spread of dangerous infections, can only be addressed through joint efforts.

And, of course, it is only on the basis of honest and mutually beneficial cooperation that we can look for ways out of the critical situation that has emerged in the world economy because of the ill-conceived and selfish actions of certain states, which, by using financial mechanisms, are actually shifting their own macroeconomic policy mistakes onto the rest of the world.

We are confident that today, as never before, the world needs the BRICS countries' leadership in defining a unifying and positive course for forming a truly multipolar system of interstate relations based on the universal norms of international law and the key principles of the UN Charter. In this context, we can count on support from many states in Asia, Africa and Latin America, which are seeking to pursue an independent policy.

I am sure that by tradition the present BRICS Summit will be substantive and effective, and that we will manage to hold a frank and detailed exchange of views on all the most important global and regional issues and various aspects of strategic partnership, including in the extended dialogue format of BRICS+.

Let me stress: Russia is ready to continue promoting close and versatile interaction with all BRICS partners and contributing to the group's greater role in international affairs.

Thank you for your attention.


See also

XIV BRICS Summit Beijing Declaration June 23, 2022

Greetings to BRICS Business Forum participants (Приветствие участникам Делового форума БРИКС) / Russia, June, 2022
Keywords: vladimir_putin, speech

President of Russia Vladimir Putin: President Xi Jinping,


It is my pleasure to welcome representatives of governments and business communities, experts and industry professionals of the BRICS countries who have gathered at the traditional Business Forum.

The Forum indeed plays a large practical role in promoting mutual trade and investment, strengthening cooperation ties and enhancing direct dialogue between business communities, not only within our Association, but also in a broader, global dimension. After all, the participants in the BRICS Business Forum represent the interests of a significant and the most dynamically developing part of the international economic community.

In this regard, I would like to recall that our countries are home to more than 3 billion people, and together account for about a quarter of the global GDP, 20 per cent of trade and roughly 25 per cent of direct investments, while the total international reserves of the BRICS countries (as of the beginning of 2022) amount to about 35 per cent of world reserves.

Hence the high relevance, in our opinion, of the theme of this Forum – Foster High-quality BRICS Partnership, Usher in a New Era for Global Development. It is also important that the agenda of the Forum is packed with truly crucial issues, such as ensuring sustainable growth of the global economy, preserving its openness, increasing cooperation in the field of digital economy, green growth, industry modernization, and building new transport and logistics chains.

Russia supports the draft Beijing Initiative to be adopted following the Forum, which reaffirms determination of BRICS business circles to continue close joint work in all the areas mentioned.

Entrepreneurs of our countries are forced to develop their business in a challenging environment when the Western partners neglect the basic principles of market economy, free trade, and inviolability of private property. They follow, in fact, an irresponsible macroeconomic course, including the launch of the "printing press" – uncontrolled emission and accumulation of unsecured debts.

At the same time more and more politically motivated sanctions are continuously introduced, mechanisms of exerting pressure on competitors are further strengthened. There is intentional destruction of cooperation ties; transport and logistics chains are destroyed. And all this is contrary to common sense and basic economic logic, it undermines business interests on a global scale, negatively affecting the wellbeing of people, in effect, of all countries.

As a result, the problems in the world economy become recurrent. What we see is an economic slowdown, growing unemployment, shortages in raw materials and components. Problems with ensuring global food security are getting worse; prices for grain crops and other basic agricultural products are being inflated.

It is important that, despite all the problems and difficulties, BRICS business circles have been consistently enhancing mutually beneficial ties in the areas of trade, finance, and investment. For example, in the first three months of this year, trade between the Russian Federation and the BRICS countries increased by 38 per cent – and reached USD 45 billion.

Contacts between Russian business circles and the business community of the BRICS countries have intensified. For example, negotiations are underway to open Indian chain stores in Russia, increase the share of Chinese cars, equipment, and hardware on our market. ­­­ In its turn, Russia's presence in the BRICS countries is growing.­­ There has been a noticeable increase in the exports of Russian oil to China and India. ­

Agricultural cooperation is developing dynamically. Russia exports considerable amounts of fertilizers to the BRICS states. Russian IT companies are expanding their activities in India and South Africa, and our satellites enable TV broadcasting for as many as 40 million residents of Brazil.­­­

Together with BRICS partners, we are developing reliable alternative mechanisms for international settlements. The Russian Financial Messaging System is open for connection with the banks of the BRICS countries. The Russian MIR payment system is expanding its presence. ­­We are exploring the possibility of creating an international reserve currency based on the basket of BRICS currencies.­

The Russian business community, in coordination with the business communities of the BRICS states, takes prompt steps to develop the transport infrastructure. Logistics routes are readjusted, new production chains are created.

I would like to stress that Russia's strategy has not changed: while strengthening our economic, technological and scientific potential, we are ready to work openly with all bona fide partners based on the principles of mutual respect for each other's interests, the primacy of international law, and equality for all nations and peoples.

During my address at the recent St Petersburg International Economic Forum, I have already spoken in detail about our plans for further economic development and the creation of comfortable conditions for business in general, including foreign business. It is significant that representatives of foreign companies and entrepreneurs who came to St Petersburg showed their willingness to continue working on the Russian market and adapt to new conditions. And we will certainly provide all the necessary assistance to them.

In general, I would like to note that Russia is taking comprehensive measures aimed at mitigating the negative impact of sanctions and strengthening our trade and investment relations with all the states concerned.

Our macroeconomic policy shows its effectiveness in practice. We were able to protect the Russian financial system and begin to stabilize the situation in the industry by providing targeted social support to citizens.

The Russian state, first of all, focuses on stimulating the private initiative. We strive to expand entrepreneurial freedoms by reducing the administrative burden, launching new easy-term lending programs, and introducing tax and customs exemptions.

We are actively engaged in redirecting our trade flows and foreign economic contacts to reliable international partners, first of all, the BRICS countries.

Taking the opportunity, I am pleased to invite representatives of your states to the Eastern Economic Forum, which will be held in Vladivostok in early September, where many issues relevant to the BRICS business community will also be discussed.

In conclusion, I would like to express my confidence that the work of the Business Forum of our Association will continue to focus on expanding trade, business, investment and production ties of the BRICS countries.

Certainly, I would like to thank the President of the People's Republic of China, Mr. Xi Jinping, and all Chinese friends for organizing this Forum, and I wish its participants success and all the best.

Thank you.
From Economy to Outer Space: Conclusions of the 14th BRICS Summit (От экономики к космосу: итоги 14-го саммита БРИКС) / Russia, June, 2022
Keywords: summit, expert_opinion

Paul Antonopoulos, independent geopolitical analyst

The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa met on June 23 in the context of the BRICS Summit amid major shifts in the geopolitical and economic order following the Russian military operation in Ukraine and the consequential sanctions from the West. The summit was held in a virtual format for the third consecutive year because of the COVID-19 pandemic and geopolitical tensions that require leaders to be close to home.

As BRICS nations have a combined population of 3.23 billion and a combined GDP of more than $23 trillion, it offers the most powerful bloc to rival and/or challenge the West's global domination. Such a challenge is of course not in the military field as BRICS is an economic bloc, meaning that the discussions surrounding the war in Ukraine were not about a unified front in support of Moscow, but rather how Western sanctions against Russia necessitate the immediate need to establish an alternative global economic model and order.

"We have discussed the situation in Ukraine and recall our national positions as expressed at the appropriate fora, namely the UNSC [U.N. Security Council] and UNGA [U.N. General Assembly]. We support talks between Russia and Ukraine," the joint BRICS leaders statement said. "We agree to continue to deepen cooperation on competition amongst BRICS countries and create a fair competition market environment for international economic and trade cooperation."

Addressing the issue of the UN Security Council, the need for "comprehensive reform […] with a view to making it more representative, effective and efficient, and to increase the representation of the developing countries so that it can adequately respond to global challenges," was reaffirmed.

The permanent members of the UNSC are China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and United States, and thus excludes any country from Latin America or Africa, as well as India despite being the world's second most populous country, a bigger economy than France, and a military ranked more powerful than France and the UK. In this way, the UNSC is unbalanced, making reformation all the more important.

The implementation of a sustainable development agenda by 2030 is also present in thetext of the final declaration of the XIV BRICS Summit. Leaders from Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa emphasized that the international community must attach greater importance to development issues and intensify global partnerships.

The joint statement encourages "financial support and technology transfer to developing countries," adding that "the breakthroughs in the applications of digital technologies, such as Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) may play an important role towards sustainable development." To do so, it is necessary to strengthen the participation of the poorest countries and emerging markets "in global decision-making processes and structures and make it better attuned to contemporary realities."

Particularly highlighted in this proposed process is Africa as it has some of the fastest growing populations and markets in the world. The UN estimates that over half of the world's population growth in the next thirty years will be in Africa, followed by Asia with an expected addition of approximately one billion people by 2050. In contrast, fertility rates are currently below the population replacement level in Europe, a fact for several decades now.

The statement also stressed the importance of conventions against biochemical and chemical terrorism. While it does not directly mention US biological laboratories in Ukraine, the document calls for an "expeditious finalization and adoption of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism within the UN framework and for launching multilateral negotiations on an international convention for the suppression of acts of chemical and biological terrorism."

"We call for strengthening the system of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, including the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC) and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC), and for preserving their integrity and effectiveness to maintain global stability and international peace and security," the statement adds.

In addition to this, BRICS leaders expressed again their commitment to a world free of nuclear weapons. In this way, there is a geopolitical element as it also signals to the nuclear armed US, UK and France that BRICS has no intentions of a nuclear war or arms race.

Prevention of an arms race in outer space was also mentioned by BRICS leaders, who stressed "support for ensuring the long-term sustainability of outer space activities and prevention of an arms race in outer space (PAROS) and of its weaponization, including through negotiations to adopt a relevant legally binding multilateral instrument."

By emphasizing on points of cooperation, greater representation at the most senior level of global governance, and stressing a nuclear-free world and a weapon-free outer space, the 2022 BRICS Summit was more important than ever considering the context of the Ukraine War. With the geopolitical and economic order rapidly changing, by emphasizing greater global balance, developing countries will be more inclined to a change in the global system if they are better represented and developed compared to the current situation. In this way, the results of this BRICS Summit are perhaps the most important in its history.

Can BRICS Make a Contribution to International Security? (Может ли БРИКС внести вклад в международную безопасность?) / Russia, June, 2022
Keywords: national_security, expert_opinion

The 14th BRICS Summit is being held in virtual format in Beijing, China. Under turbulent international situations, the question of whether BRICS should indeed play a significant role in international security remains open. Numerous skeptics believe that security issues should remain outside of the BRICS mandate because BRICS has little to contribute here if compared to institutions specifically created to handle security challenges.

Their arguments can be concluded as the three following aspects. Firstly, security has always been closely linked to geography. Secondly, security cooperation tends to presuppose common values and coinciding views on the international system. Thirdly, effective security cooperation is possible if the institution in question has a clear and specific security-related mandate.

These arguments cannot be dismissed as irrelevant. But it is also hard to unconditionally accept them since they reflect traditional views on security which no longer fully reflect the realities of the 21st century. Meanwhile, these realities allow us to assess the capabilities of BRICS in the security domain a little more optimistically, even if the capabilities of BRICS have not yet been fully used.

Let's start with geography. In general, security problems affect countries geographically close to each other. Conflicts and wars, as well as alliances and unions, arise mainly between neighbors. But in today's world, there are many dimensions of security that are not so rigidly tied to geography.

Problems such as cyber security, international terrorism, climate change and the threat of pandemics do not have a specific geographical preference; they are global in nature. Within BRICS, they already actively discuss "non-geographical" issues of international security: non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the use of atomic energy and space for peaceful purposes, international information security and potential threats associated with new technologies.

On the other hand, the regionalization (fragmentation) of the global political and economic systems taking place today contains challenges to international security. If the world breaks apart into a number of blocs, such development can result not only in economic competition between them, but ultimately in a military confrontation.

Therefore, BRICS, figuratively speaking, can help to "sew" the fabric of global security that is being fragmented in front of our eyes. Interaction within the framework of BRICS can become one of the factors hindering the formation of a bipolar system of world politics.

What about values? Tasks related to international security are not always solved on the basis of a unity of values. Very often, the task is precisely to find a balance of interests between countries whose values differ significantly.

In a sense, we can say that the composition of the UN Security Council reflects the significant pluralism of values that exists in the modern world. The notion that humanity was rapidly moving towards the universalization of Western liberal values two or three decades ago has not been confirmed by the course of history.

There is every reason to assume that the pluralism of values in the world will only increase over time. Security will have to be negotiated not on the basis of common values but on the basis of converging interests.

BRICS, like the UN Security Council, has members with different sets of values. It is a small but very representative organization—especially if we take into account not only the BRICS members but also those countries that are somehow involved in the organization's project activities (BRICS+). Therefore, if something can be agreed upon within the framework of BRICS, then it can be agreed on in a broader format, up to the level of global agreements.

Thus, BRICS can be perceived as a laboratory for working out those solutions in the field of security that are likely to be acceptable to very different participants. In addition, each of the BRICS countries is able to pull its many partners and allies along with it.

Finally, let us turn to the issue of the BRICS mandate. International organizations, among other classifications, can be divided into specialized and universal ones. For the latter, a vague mandate is not necessarily a bad thing, especially if such a vague mandate combines security and development concerns.

In today's world, these problems cannot be separated from each other. Without security, it is impossible to count on progressive development, but without successful development there will be no sustainable security. Unfortunately, security issues are still very often separated from development issues, and these two areas are dealt with by different institutions and different groups of officials and experts.

However, the logic of development and the logic of security do not diverge from each other any longer. If BRICS succeeds in trying to reconcile these two logics, it will benefit everyone. In particular, such a project format of work may be in demand in the UN system where specialized organizations often do not interact enough with each other.

Therefore, it's necessary to maximize the comparative advantages of existing formats of multilateral cooperation like BRICS which bring their own specific features to the table. In the field of security, BRICS could well become a testing ground for developing multilateral approaches to new challenges and threats of the 21st century.
The 'Multiplier Effect' of BRICS+ («Эффект мультипликатора» БРИКС+) / Russia, June, 2022
Keywords: brics+, expert_opinion
Author: Yaroslav Lissovolik

The possibilities offered by the "integration of integrations" track for BRICS+ are substantial, provided that such a platform is open, inclusive and ensures connectivity across regional integration arrangements – this will deliver the much needed "multiplier effect" in the process of economic cooperation and can set off a new process of globalization that connects regional arrangements in the developed and the developing world, writes Valdai Club Programme Director Yaroslav Lissovolik.

The main hallmark of China's chairmanship in the BRICS grouping in 2022 has been the unveiling of plans to institutionalize the BRICS+ format and to explore the possibilities of expanding the core of the BRICS bloc. The current debate regarding the future trajectories of the BRICS+ format centers on whether the expansion of the bloc is to proceed one by one by adding new countries to the BRICS core, or via the format of "integration of integrations", namely the creation of a platform for the cooperation of regional arrangements in which BRICS countries are members. At this stage, it appears that both tracks are possible and have their pros and cons. But there is one factor in the regional "integration of integrations" model that has particular merit – it is the "BRICS+" multiplier that allows for a significant extension in the outreach undertaken by core BRICS economies with respect to the rest of the Global South.

In terms of scale, the effects of the two formats of BRICS expansion may be mathematically illustrated by the difference between the arithmetic and geometric progression. If the one-by-one expansion in the core of the BRICS grouping represents the minimalism of the arithmetic progression, the BRICS+ format of integration of integrations can be seen as a far more extensive and ambitious undertaking characterized by a geometric progression. With respect to the arithmetic progression, the waves of the expansion in the BRICS core may involve a sequential addition of one or several countries representing the most significant heavyweights (possibly members of G20 from the Global South). The alternative is the aggregation of the regional integration blocs of all of the five BRICS members – represented by the BEAMS platforms consisting of BIMSTEC, Eurasian Economic Union, the ASEAN-China FTA, Mercosur and the South African Customs Union – leading to the addition of up to 25 members (the 5 times 5 geometric progression – or the 5 BRICS taken to the power of 2) of the BRICS+ circle that are the regional neighbors/partners of BRICS economies.

This BRICS+ geometric progression can be taken further to the next level whereby a wider circle of countries is included into the enlarged platform that comprises the African Union in Africa, CELAC in Latin America and the Eurasian economies from the Global South. The Eurasian constellation of developing economies can be formed on the basis of the aggregation of the main regional integration blocs such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), ASEAN, SAARC, EAEU. Such an extended platform across all three continents of the Global South may be termed as TRIA (Trilateral Intercontinental Alliance) and it comprises nearly 125-130 developing economies (depending on the exact methodological approach of including the Eurasian economies). This second sequence of extending the BRICS+ platform results in a "5 times 5 times 5" geometric progression – or the 5 BRICS economies taken to the power of 3.

These stages of progression in the extension of the BRICS+ circle can be taken to an even higher level if one is to account for all of the bilateral/plurilateral trade deals, digital alliances and other accords that may be multilateralized on the basis of the BRICS+ platform. For example, the Israel-Mercosur FTA or the SACU-EFTA FTA could be extended to include more developing countries from the BRICS+ circle. At this stage the combinatorics of matching and aggregating the multitudes of alliances along the BRICS+ platform kicks in – each of the main regions and regional integration grouping from the Global South has its own cob-web of alliances that can be shared throughout this extended network of Global South.

Such additional multiplier effects will be all the more powerful, the greater the openness and inclusiveness of the aggregated BRICS+ platform and the more connectivity there is across the alliances concluded by developing economies with their partners from across the globe. In other words, in order for the multiplier effects to be increased the BRICS+ platform of integration of integrations needs to be predicated on alliances that are scalable and capable of connecting with other regional blocs (regional alliances that can be "globalized"). This in turn may be facilitated by particular emphasis placed on building platforms for regional development institutions (with standardized protocols for investment projects, including with respect to PPPs); greater scope for digital economic alliances that may be particularly amenable to scale and replication.

Potentially this sequential approach to building alliances across the Global South on the basis of the BRICS+ "integration of integrations" could become a basis for re-starting the globalization process in the world economy bottom-up (from the level of countries and regional blocs) rather than top-down (solely from the level of global organizations). In fact, this "integration of integrations" sequence may prove superior to the previous attempts at top-down wholesale liberalization via "Washington consensus" for the following reasons:

  • Greater gradualism and connectivity of country and regional integration roadmaps with the resulting global pattern of liberalization

  • Greater flexibility: there may be room for revision and corrections to the resulting global pattern at the local level

  • Greater accordance of the global pattern of alliances and integration with local/country-level and regional peculiarities and exigencies

  • Greater political sustainability and feasibility of the resulting global pattern of alliances that is predicated on the cooperative network of regional alliances
This greater sustainability and flexibility of the bottom-up globalization process as a network of alliances rather than a rigid framework that is to be implemented across the globe without due account of the regional and country-level peculiarities argues in favor of looking for ways to render such a model of globalization more feasible and effective.

Under this scenario of a network-type globalization what would be the role of global institutions such as the WTO, IMF, World Bank? In many ways it would remain crucial for the sustainability of the construct of the reshaped global economic architecture. The global institutions would receive the additional mandate of coordinating the regional networks and development institutions:

  • IMF: coordination of regional financing arrangements (RFAs)

  • World Bank: coordination of regional development banks

  • WTO: coordination of regional integration arrangement
There will also be a need for global institutions to focus more on resolving global issues, including global imbalances. This in turn would allow the global economic system to overcome the current problem of regional and global institutions/organizations operating frequently as substitutes rather than mutually reinforcing complements.

In sum, the BRICS+ track of country-by-country additions to the BRICS core if pursued solely on its own without building a broader network of alliances may result in minor alterations to the status-quo and a missed opportunity for the Global South and the broader global economy. At the same time, the possibilities offered by the "integration of integrations" track for BRICS+ are substantial, provided that such a platform is open, inclusive and ensures connectivity across regional integration arrangements – this will deliver the much needed "multiplier effect" in the process of economic cooperation and can set off a new process of globalization that connects regional arrangements in the developed and the developing world. Such a paradigm may be the real mission of BRICS after all – the value of BRICS is not in each of them taken separately, but rather in them being connected together to form a construct that supports the edifice of the global economic architecture.

This article is an extended version of the article published by CGTN. Please feel free to write to Yaroslav Lissovolik:

Fostering High-quality Partnership and Embarking on a New Journey of BRICS Cooperation (Содействие качественному партнерству и начало нового пути сотрудничества БРИКС) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: speech, xi_jinping, summit

Remarks by H.E. Xi Jinping
President of the People's Republic of China
At the 14th BRICS Summit

Dear Colleagues,

Our world today is living through accelerating changes unseen in a century and continued spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. They confront humanity with unprecedented challenges and usher in a new phase of instability and transformation for global development.

The Chinese people often say, "True gold can stand the test of fire." Over the past 16 years, the giant ship of BRICS has sailed forward tenaciously against raging torrents and storms. Riding the wind and cleaving the waves, it has embarked on a righteous course of mutual support and win-win cooperation. Standing at the crossroads of history, we should both look back at the journey we have traveled and keep in mind why we established BRICS in the first place, and look forward to a shared future of a more comprehensive, close, practical and inclusive high-quality partnership so as to jointly embark on a new journey of BRICS cooperation.

First, we need to uphold solidarity and safeguard world peace and tranquility. Our world today is overshadowed by the dark clouds of Cold War mentality and power politics, and beset by constantly emerging traditional and non-traditional security threats. Some countries attempt to expand military alliances to seek absolute security, stoke bloc-based confrontation by coercing other countries into picking sides, and pursue unilateral dominance at the expense of others' rights and interests. If such dangerous trends are allowed to continue, the world will witness even more turbulence and insecurity.

It is important that BRICS countries support each other on issues concerning core interests, practice true multilateralism, safeguard justice, fairness and solidarity and reject hegemony, bullying and division. This year, we have held the Foreign Ministers' Meeting and the Meeting of High Representatives on National Security, deepened cooperation on counter-terrorism, cybersecurity and other issues, enhanced coordination at the United Nations and other multilateral institutions, and spoke out for justice on the international stage.

Not long ago, I put forward the Global Security Initiative (GSI), which advocates a vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, follows the philosophy that humanity is an indivisible security community, and aims to create a new path to security that features dialogue over confrontation, partnership over alliance and win-win over zero-sum. China would like to work with BRICS partners to operationalize the GSI and bring more stability and positive energy to the world.

Second, we need to uphold cooperation to boost development and jointly tackle risks and challenges. The combination of the COVID-19 pandemic and the Ukraine crisis has resulted in disruptions to global industrial and supply chains, sustained hikes of commodity prices, and weaker international monetary and financial systems. All these have cast shadows over development worldwide, and emerging markets and developing countries bear the brunt. But just as a crisis may bring chaos, it can also spur change. A lot will ride on how we handle the crisis.

This year, we launched the BRICS Initiative on Enhancing Cooperation on Supply Chains and the Initiative on Trade and Investment for Sustainable Development, adopted the Agreement on Cooperation and Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters and the Strategy on Food Security Cooperation, and held a High-level Meeting on Climate Change for the first time. We should make good use of these new platforms to boost connectivity of industrial and supply chains and jointly meet challenges in poverty reduction, agriculture, energy, logistics and other fields. We should support greater development of the New Development Bank and a steady process to admit new members, and improve the Contingent Reserve Arrangement to cement the BRICS financial safety net and firewall. We should also expand BRICS cooperation on cross-border payment and credit rating to facilitate trade, investment and financing among our countries.

Last year, I put forward the Global Development Initiative (GDI), which aims to re-energize the implementation of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and build a global community of development. China stands ready to work with BRICS partners to add more substance to the GDI and contribute to stronger, greener and healthier global development.

Third, we need to uphold the pioneering spirit and innovation and unleash the potential and vitality of cooperation. Those who seize the opportunities of the new economy, such as big data and artificial intelligence, are in sync with the pulse of the times. Those who seek to create monopoly, blockade and barriers in science and technology in order to disrupt other countries' innovation and development and hold on to their dominant position are doomed to fail.

We need to improve global science and technology governance and allow more people to access and benefit from the fruits of scientific and technological advances. This year, we have accelerated the building of the BRICS Partnership on New Industrial Revolution Innovation Center in Xiamen, hosted the Forum on the Development of Industrial Internet and Digital Manufacturing and the Forum on Big Data for Sustainable Development, reached the Digital Economy Partnership Framework,issued the Initiative for Cooperation on Digitalization of Manufacturing, and established a network of technology transfer centers and an aerospace cooperation mechanism. All these have opened new channels for closer industrial policy coordination between BRICS countries. Recognizing the importance of talents in the digital age, we have set up the Alliance for Vocational Education, and organized the Skills Competition and the Women Innovation Contest to build a talent pool for stronger BRICS cooperation on innovation and entrepreneurship.

Fourth, we need to uphold openness and inclusiveness and pool collective wisdom and strength. BRICS countries gather not in a closed club or an exclusive circle, but a big family of mutual support and a partnership for win-win cooperation. At the Xiamen Summit in 2017, I proposed the "BRICS Plus" cooperation approach. Over the past five years, "BRICS Plus" cooperation has deepened and expanded, setting a prime example of South-South cooperation and seeking strength through unity among emerging markets and developing countries.

Under the new circumstances, it is all the more important for BRICS countries to pursue development with open doors and boost cooperation with open arms. This year we, for the first time, invited guest countries to attend the BRICS Foreign Ministers' Meeting. The newly established BRICS Vaccine R&D Center has an unequivocal commitment to openness. Step by step, we have organized a variety of "BRICS Plus" events in such areas as scientific and technological innovation, people-to-people exchanges and sustainable development. All these provide new platforms for cooperation among emerging markets and developing countries.

In recent years, many countries have asked to join the BRICS cooperation mechanism. Bringing in fresh blood will inject new vitality into BRICS cooperation and increase the representativeness and influence of BRICS. This year we have, on separate occasions, had in-depth discussions on the question of membership expansion. It is important to advance this process to allow like-minded partners to become part of the BRICS family at an early date.


As representatives of emerging markets and developing countries, we must make the right decision and take responsible actions at this critical juncture of history. What we do will have a significant impact on the world. Let us stay united, pool strength and forge ahead to build a community with a shared future for mankind and jointly create a bright future for humanity.

Thank you.
XIV BRICS Summit Beijing Declaration (Пекинская декларация XIV саммита БРИКС) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: summit, concluded_agreements


1. We,the Leaders of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the Republic of India, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of South Africa held the XIV BRICS Summit under the theme "Foster High-quality BRICS Partnership, Usher in a New Era for Global Development" on 23-24 June 2022.

2. We recall that in the past 16 years, upholding the BRICS spirit featuring mutual respect and understanding, equality, solidarity, openness, inclusiveness, and consensus, BRICS countries have strengthened mutual trust,deepened intra-BRICS mutually beneficial cooperation,and closer people-to-people exchanges, which has led to a series of significant outcomes. We reiterate the importance of further enhancing BRICS solidarity and cooperation based on our common interests and key priorities, to further strengthen our strategic partnership.

3. We are glad to note that despite the COVID-19 pandemic and other challenges, BRICS countries in 2022 have jointly continued enhancing solidarity and deepening cooperation on, inter alia, economy, peace and security, people-to-people exchanges, public health, and sustainable development by holding a series of meetings and activities, and contributed to tangible outcomes of BRICS cooperation.

4. We welcome the High-level Dialogue on Global Development at this Summit as a testimony to the open and inclusive nature of BRICS Partnership including BRICS Outreach/BRICS Plus cooperation. We look forward to the Dialogue injecting new impetus to strengthen international cooperation and solidarity on implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Strengthening and Reforming Global Governance

5. We reiterate our commitment to multilateralism through upholding international law, including the purposes and principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations as its indispensable cornerstone, and to the central role of the United Nations in an international system in which sovereign states cooperate to maintain peace and security, advance sustainable development, ensure the promotion and protection of democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, and promoting cooperation based on the spirit of mutual respect, justice and equality.

6. Recalling the BRICS Joint Statement on Strengthening and Reforming the Multilateral System adopted by our Foreign Ministers in 2021 and the principles outlined therein, we agree that the task of strengthening and reforming multilateral system encompasses the following:

  • Making instruments of global governance more inclusive, representative and participatory to facilitate greater and more meaningful participation of developing and least developed countries, especially in Africa, in global decision-making processes and structures and make it better attuned to contemporary realities;

  • Being based on inclusive consultation and collaboration for the benefit of all, while respecting sovereign independence, equality, mutual legitimate interests and concerns to make the multilateral organizations more responsive,effective,transparent and credible;

  • Making multilateral organizations more responsive, effective, transparent, democratic, objective, action-oriented, solution-oriented and credible, so as to promote cooperation in building international relations based on the norms and principles of international law, and the spirit of mutual respect, justice, equality, mutual beneficial cooperation and realities of the contemporary world;
  • Using innovative and inclusive solutions, including digital and technological tools to promote sustainable development and facilitate affordable and equitable access to global public goods for all;

  • Strengthening capacities of individual States and international organizations to better respond to new and emerging, traditional and non-traditional challenges, including those emanating from terrorism, money laundering, cyber-realm, infodemics and fake news;

  • Promoting international and regional peace and security, social and economic development, and preserve nature's balance with people-centered international cooperation at its core.

7. We recall the UNGA Resolution 75/1 and reiterate the call for reforms of the principal organs of the United Nations. We recommit to instill new life in the discussions on reform of the UN Security Council and continue the work to revitalize the General Assembly and strengthen the Economic and Social Council. We recall the 2005 World Summit Outcome document and reaffirm the need for a comprehensive reform of the UN, including its Security Council, with a view to making it more representative, effective and efficient, and to increase the representation of the developing countries so that it can adequately respond to global challenges. China and Russia reiterated the importance they attach to the status and role of Brazil, India and South Africa in international affairs and supported their aspiration to play a greater role in the UN.

8. We appreciate the role of India and Brazil as members of the UN Security Council for 2021-2022 and 2022-2023 respectively. The presence of four BRICS countries in the UN Security Council provides an opportunity to further enhance the weight of our dialogue on issue of international peace and security and for continued cooperation in areas of mutual interest, including through regular exchanges amongst our permanent Mission to the United Nations and in other international fora.

9. We reiterate the need for all countries to cooperate in promoting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms under the principles of equality and mutual respect. We agree to continue to treat all human rights including the right to development in a fair and equal manner, on the same footing and with the same emphasis. We agree to strengthen cooperation on issues of common interests both within BRICS and in multilateral fora including the United Nations General Assembly and Human Rights Council, taking into account the necessity to promote, protect and fulfil human rights in a non-selective, non-politicised and constructive manner and without double standards. We call for the respect of democracy and human rights. In this regard, we underline that they should be implemented on the level of global governance as well as at national level. We reaffirm our commitment to ensuring the promotion and protection of democracy, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all with the aim to build a brighter shared future for the international community based on mutually beneficial cooperation.

10. We stress that global economic governance is of critical importance for countries to ensure sustainable development and recall further our support for broadening and strengthening the participation of emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs) in the international economic decision-making and norm-setting processes. We reiterate our support for G20's leading role in global economic governance and underline that G20 shall remain intact and respond to current global challenges. We call upon the international community to foster partnerships while underlining that it is imperative to strengthen macro-policy coordination in driving the world economy out of the crisis and shaping a strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive post-pandemic economic recovery. We urge major developed countries to adopt responsible economic policies, while managing policy spillovers, to avoid severe impacts on developing countries.

11. We reaffirm our support for an open, transparent, inclusive, non-discriminatory and rules-based multilateral trading system,as embodied in the World Trade Organization(WTO). We will engage constructively to pursue the necessary WTO reform to build an open world economy that supports trade and development, preserve the pre-eminent role of the WTO for setting global trade rules and governance, supporting inclusive development and promoting the rights and interests of its members, including developing members and LDCs. We recognize that special and differential treatment as established in WTO rules is a tool to facilitate the achievement of WTO objectives with respect to economic growth and development. We call upon all WTO members to avoid unilateral and protectionist measures that run counter to the spirit and rules of the WTO. We emphasize the top priority and urgency of launching the selection process of the Appellate Body members to restore the binding two-tier multilateral dispute settlement mechanism. We agree that the Appellate Body crisis should be resolved without further delay and should not be linked with other issues. We endorse BRICS Statement on Strengthening the Multilateral Trading System and Reforming the WTO. We commend the successful conclusion of MC12 that underscores the value of multilateralism. We encourage WTO members to sustain momentum and achieve further meaningful outcomes by MC13.

12. We reaffirm our commitment to maintaining a strong and effective Global Financial Safety Net with a quota-based and adequately resourced IMF at its center. We call for the timely and successful completion of the 16th General Review of Quotas by 15 December 2023, to reduce the IMF's reliance on temporary resources, to address under-representation of emerging markets and developing countries (EMDCs) for their meaningful engagement in the governance of IMF and protect the voice and quota shares of the poorest and smallest members. We welcome progress on voluntary channeling of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) from countries with strong external positions to support countries most in need, as well as the IMF's decision to establish the Resilience and Sustainability Trust (RST). We look forward to early operationalization of the RST.

13. We note that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused serious shock and hardship to humanity, unbalanced recovery is aggravating inequality across the world, the global growth momentum has weakened, and the economic prospects have declined. We are concerned that global development is suffering from severe disruption, including the widening North-South development gap, divergent recovery trajectories, pre-existing developmental fault-lines and a technological divide. This is posing huge challenges to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as economic and health scarring, particularly for EMDCs, is projected to persist beyond the current pandemic. We urge major developed countries to adopt responsible economic policies, while managing policy spillovers, to avoid severe impacts on developing countries. We encourage multilateral financial institutions and international organizations to play a constructive role in building global consensus on economic policies and preventing systemic risks of economic disruption and financial fragmentation. We welcome the actions to accelerate the progress towards achieving the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Working in Solidarity to Combat COVID-19

14. We reiterate that it was imperative to ensure the availability of safe, efficacious, accessible and affordable diagnostics, medicines, vaccines and essential medical products to people from different countries especially developing countries, and equitable distribution of vaccines and expeditious vaccination, to fill the immunization gap globally. We support the leading role of the WHO in combating the pandemic, as well as acknowledge initiatives such as the COVAX and the ACT-A. We recognize the importance of the discussions in the WTO on relevant IP waiver proposals, as well as capacity building and strengthening local production of vaccines and other health tools, especially in developing countries. We stress the need to continue to strengthen the cooperation on testing methods, therapeutic, research, production and recognition of vaccines, the research on their efficacy and safety in light of new variants of COVID-19 virus and recognition of national document of vaccination against COVID-19 and respective testing, especially for purpose of international travel.

15. We reaffirm our commitment to multilateralism and continue to support World Health Organization (WHO) to play the leading role in the global health governance, while supporting other UN relevant agencies' activities. The BRICS countries will strengthen technical multilateral cooperation aimed at enhancing capacities in the fields of responding to major public health emergencies, Universal Health Coverage (UHC), vaccine research and development, prevention & therapeutic health care and digital health systems. We agree to deepen existing cooperation through establishing closer cooperation ties among BRICS health institutions and exploring opportunities for joint collaborative projects in the health sector.

16. We welcome the convening of the BRICS High-Level Forum on Traditional Medicine.

17. We stress that BRICS countries should be better prepared for COVID-19 and future public health emergencies, and enhance exchanges and cooperation on public health emergency alert, pandemic prevention preparedness and response, and best practices in medical treatment. We welcome the virtual launch of the BRICS Vaccine Research and Development Center and commend the "Initiative on Strengthening Vaccine Cooperation and Jointly Building a Defensive Line against Pandemic". We welcome the participation of other countries, especially EMDCs, in the Center to upgrade capacity for controlling and preventing infectious diseases. We support and emphasize the urgent need for the establishment of the BRICS Integrated Early Warning System for preventing mass infectious diseases risks in accordance with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the WHO's Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, and emphasize that BRICS countries should jointly take proactive and effective measures to prevent and reduce the risk of cross-border transmission of infectious diseases and contribute to improving global health.

18. We support continuing to hold the BRICS TB Research Network Meetings, which will contribute to achieving the WHO goal of ending TB by 2030. We support the early signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Field of Regulation of Medical Products for Human Use among our drug regulatory authorities and welcome the holding of a BRICS Seminar of Officials and Experts in Population Development in the second half of 2022.

19. We call on international agencies and philanthropists to procure vaccines and boosters from manufacturers in developing countries, including in Africa, to ensure that the manufacturing capabilities being developed are retained. This is critical to build health system resilience and preparedness for emerging variants and any future health emergencies including pandemics. In this context access to diagnostics and therapeutics is essential to adopt quality and affordable medical countermeasures and develop overall surveillance capabilities.

Safeguarding Peace and Security

20. We welcome the BRICS Joint Statement on "Strengthen BRICS Solidarity and Cooperation, Respond to New Features and Challenges in International Situation" adopted by our Foreign Ministers on 19 May 2022, and the 12th Meeting of BRICS National Security Advisers and High Representatives on National Security, held on 15 June 2022, and commend their fruitful discussions on various strategic issues.

21. We commit to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all States, stress our commitment to the peaceful resolution of differences and disputes between countries through dialogue and consultation, support all efforts conducive to the peaceful settlement of crises.

22. We have discussed the situation in Ukraine and recall our national positions as expressed at the appropriate fora, namely the UNSC and UNGA. We support talks between Russia and Ukraine. We have also discussed our concerns over the humanitarian situation in and around Ukraine and expressed our support to efforts of the UN Secretary-General, UN Agencies and ICRC to provide humanitarian assistance in accordance with the basic principles of humanity, neutrality and impartiality established in UN General Assembly resolution 46/182.

23. We strongly support a peaceful, secure and stable Afghanistan while emphasizing the respect for its sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, national unity and non-interference in its internal affairs. We emphasize the need for all sides to encourage the Afghanistan authorities to achieve national reconciliation through dialogue and negotiation, and to establish a broad-based and inclusive and representative political structure. We reaffirm the significance of relevant UNSC resolutions. We emphasize that the Afghan territory not to be used to threaten or attack any country or to shelter or train terrorists, or to plan to finance terrorist acts, and reiterate the importance of combating terrorism in Afghanistan. We call on the Afghanistan authorities to work towards combating drug-related crime to free Afghanistan from the scourge of drugs. We stress the need to provide urgent humanitarian assistance to the Afghan people and to safeguard the fundamental rights of all Afghans, including women, children, and different ethnic groups.

24. We reiterate the need to resolve the Iranian nuclear issue through peaceful and diplomatic means in accordance with the international law, and stress the importance of preserving the JCPOA and the UNSCR 2231 to international non-proliferation as well as wider peace and stability and hope for success of diplomatic efforts towards the resumption of the JCPOA.

25. We express our support for negotiations in bilateral and multilateral formats to resolve all issues pertaining to the Korean Peninsula, including its complete denuclearization, and maintaining peace and stability in Northeast Asia. We reaffirm the commitment to a comprehensive peaceful, diplomatic and political solution to the situation.

26. We reaffirm our commitment to a peaceful and prosperous Middle East and North Africa. We stress the importance of addressing development and security challenges in the region. We call on the international community to support efforts aimed at the stability and peace in the region.

27. We commend efforts of African countries, the African Union and sub-regional organizations to address regional challenges, including maintaining peace and security, post conflict reconstruction as well as development efforts, and call for continued support by the international community to them. We emphasize the collaboration of AU and UN in accordance with the UN Charter.

28. We call for continued efforts to strengthen the system of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation treaties and agreements and to preserve its integrity for maintaining global stability and international peace and security, and stressed further the need to maintain the effectiveness and efficiency as well as the consensus-based nature of the relevant multilateral instruments in the field of disarmament, non-proliferation and arms control.

29. We call for strengthening the system of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation, including the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (BTWC) and the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction (CWC), and for preserving their integrity and effectiveness to maintain global stability and international peace and security. We underline the need to comply with and strengthen the BTWC, including by adopting a legally binding Protocol to the Convention that provides for, inter alia, an efficient verification mechanism. We reassert our support for ensuring the long-term sustainability of outer space activities and prevention of an arms race in outer space (PAROS) and of its weaponization, including through negotiations to adopt a relevant legally binding multilateral instrument. We recognize the value of the updated Draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects (PPWT) submitted to the Conference on Disarmament in 2014. We stress that practical Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures (TCBMs), may also contribute to PAROS.

30. We reaffirm our commitment to a world free of nuclear weapons and stress our strong commitment to nuclear disarmament and our support to the work on this subject during the session of 2022 of the Conference on Disarmament. We note the Joint Statement of the Leaders of the People's Republic of China, the French Republic, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States on Preventing Nuclear War and Avoiding Arms Races on 3 January 2022, in particular the affirmation that a nuclear war cannot be won and must never be fought.

31. We reaffirm our commitment to the promotion of an open, secure, stable, accessible and peaceful ICT-environment, underscored the importance of enhancing common understandings and intensifying cooperation in the use of ICTs and Internet. We support the leading role of the United Nations in promoting constructive dialogue on ensuring ICT-security, including within the UN Open-Ended Working Group on security of and in the use of ICTs 2021-2025, and developing a universal legal framework in this realm. We call for a comprehensive, balanced, objective approach to the development and security of ICT products and systems. We underscore the importance of establishing legal frameworks of cooperation among BRICS countries on ensuring security in the use of ICTs. We also acknowledge the need to advance practical intra-BRICS cooperation through implementation of the BRICS Roadmap of Practical Cooperation on ensuring security in the use of ICTs and the activities of the BRICS Working Group on security in the use of ICTs.

32. We, while emphasizing the formidable potential of the ICTs for growth and development, recognize new associated possibilities they bring for criminal activities and threats, and expressed concern over the rising level and complexity of criminal misuse of ICTs. We welcome the ongoing work in the UN Open-Ended Ad Hoc Committee of Experts to elaborate a comprehensive international convention on countering the use of ICTs for criminal purposes and reaffirm our commitment to cooperating in the implementation of the mandate adopted by the UN General Assembly resolution 75/282.

33. We express strong condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations whenever, wherever and by whomsoever committed. We recognize the threat emanating from terrorism, extremism conducive to terrorism and radicalization. We are committed to combating terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, including the cross-border movement of terrorists, and terrorism financing networks and safe havens. We reiterate that terrorism should not be associated with any religion, nationality, civilization or ethnic group. We reaffirm our unwavering commitment to contribute further to the global efforts of preventing and countering the threat of terrorism on the basis of respect for international law, in particular the Charter of the United Nations, and human rights, emphasizing that States have the primary responsibility in combating terrorism with the United Nations continuing to play central and coordinating role in this area. We also stress the need for a comprehensive and balanced approach of the whole international community to effectively curb the terrorist activities, which pose a serious threat, including in the present-day pandemic environment. We reject double standards in countering terrorism and extremism conducive to terrorism. We call for an expeditious finalization and adoption of the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism within the UN framework and for launching multilateral negotiations on an international convention for the suppression of acts of chemical and biological terrorism, at the Conference of Disarmament. We welcome the outcomes of the Seventh BRICS Counter-Terrorism Working Group Plenary Meeting and its five Subgroup Meetings. We commend the Chair for hosting the Seminar on Targeted Financial Sanctions Related to Terrorism and Terrorist Financing, and look forward to organization of the Seminar on Strengthening Counter-Terrorism Capacity Building in Developing Countries, and the BRICS Police Training Program. We also look forward to further deepening counter-terrorism cooperation.

34. We look forward to further deepening counter-terrorism cooperation and reaffirm the sole authority of the UN Security Council for imposing sanctions and call for further consolidation and strengthening of the working methods of UN Security Council Sanctions Committees to ensure their effectiveness, responsiveness and transparency, while avoiding politicization of any of their proceedings including listing proposals objectively on evidence-based criteria.

35. We reaffirm our commitment to strengthening international cooperation against corruption. While respecting the legal systems of our respective countries, we are committed to strengthening experience sharing and practical cooperation on issues related to anti-corruption law enforcement, including on pursuit of economic and corruption offenders, on mutual legal assistance in civil and administrative matters, and on asset recovery. We welcome the BRICS Initiative on Denial of Safe Haven to Corruption. We will further strengthen anti-corruption capacity building through education and training programs and enhance anti-corruption exchanges and cooperation within multilateral frameworks. We welcome the first BRICS Anti-corruption Ministerial Meeting.

36. We are concerned about the serious drug situation in the world and reiterate our commitment to the existing international drug control mechanism underpinned by the three United Nations Drug Control Conventions and the various political commitments. We appreciate BRICS Anti-Drug Working Group's active role in combating transnational drug trafficking and promoting global drug governance and will further strengthen drug control cooperation.

Promoting Economic Recovery

37. We recognize the important role of BRICS countries working together to deal with risks and challenges to the world economy in achieving global recovery and sustainable development. We reaffirm our commitment to continuing to enhance macro-economic policy coordination, deepen economic practical cooperation, and work to realize strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive post-COVID economic recovery. We emphasize the importance of continued implementation of the Strategy for BRICS Economic Partnership 2025 in all relevant ministerial tracks and working groups.

38. We recognize the dynamism of the digital economy in mitigating the impact of COVID-19 and enabling global economic recovery. We also recognize the positive role that trade and investment can play in promoting sustainable development, national and regional industrialization, the transition towards sustainable consumption and production patterns. We take note of China's hosting the "Buy BRICS" online promotion event and endorse the BRICS Digital Economy Partnership Framework, BRICS Initiative on Trade and Investment for Sustainable Development and BRICS Initiative on Enhancing Cooperation on Supply Chains. We recognize the challenges facing trade and investment development in the digital era and acknowledge that BRICS members are at different levels of digital development, and thus recognize the need to address respective challenges including the digital divide. We welcome the establishment of the Digital Economy Working Group by upgrading the E-commerce Working Group. We also agree to promote consumer protection in e-commerce by advancing the implementation of BRICS Framework for Consumer Protection in E-commerce. We reaffirm that openness, efficiency, stability, transparency, reliability and resilience of the global, regional and national production and supply chains are crucial in combating the COVID-19 pandemic, tackling economic recovery challenges and boosting international trade and investment. We encourage cooperation among BRICS countries to enhance the interconnectivity of supply chains and promote trade and investment flows. We agree to strengthen exchanges and cooperation in trade in services and engagement of BRICS national focal points, as established in the BRICS Framework for Cooperation on Trade in Services, with the BRICS Business Council with the aim to promote implementation of BRICS Trade in Services Cooperation Roadmap and relevant documents including the BRICS Framework for cooperation in Trade in Professional Services. We take note of the proposal of the Chair to establish the BRICS Trade in Services Network (BTSN) and will continue discussions.

39. We congratulate New Development Bank (NDB) on its relocation to its permanent headquarters building in Shanghai as well as the opening of NDB's regional office in India. We welcome the decisions on admission of four new members to the NDB and look forward to further membership expansion in a gradual and balanced manner in terms of geographic representation and comprising of both developed and developing countries, to enhance the NDB's international influence as well as the representation and voice of EMDCs in global governance. We support the NDB's goals of attaining the highest possible credit rating and institutional development. We appreciate the vital role of the NDB in addressing the impact of the pandemic and assisting in the economic recovery in member countries. We note the second General Strategy approved by the Board of Governors at its annual meeting and look forward to its smooth implementation. We encourage the Bank to follow the member-led and demand-driven principle, mobilize financing from diversified sources, enhance innovation and knowledge exchange, assist member countries in achieving sustainable development goals and further improve efficiency and effectiveness to fulfill its mandate, aiming to be a premier multilateral development institution.

40. We welcome the decision to establish the BRICS Think Tank Network for Finance. We expect it to work independently and provide intellectual support, as and when tasked, for knowledge sharing, exchange of experiences and practices and cooperation on finance issues amongst BRICS countries, aiming at addressing global challenges and serving the interests of the EMDCs.

41. We recognize the key role that infrastructure investment can play in facilitating sustainable development. We reaffirm our understanding that PPPs are an effective approach to leveraging the private sector to address infrastructure gaps, and scaling up infrastructure assets. We endorse the Technical Report on Public Private Partnerships for Sustainable Development. We welcome the exchange and sharing of good practices and experiences, and encourage further cooperation on infrastructure investment and PPPs. We look forward to resuming technical engagements with the NDB and the BRICS Task Force on PPP and Infrastructure on the Integrated Digital Platform on infrastructure investment projects and call for intensification of work in this area.

42. We acknowledge the importance of strengthening the Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) mechanism, which contributes to strengthening the global financial safety net and complements existing international monetary and financial arrangements. We support the amendments to the CRA Treaty, and welcome the progress in amending other relevant CRA documents. We look forward to the finalization of the amendments which would enhance the flexibility and responsiveness of the CRA mechanism. We look forward to the successful completion of the fifth CRA test run later in 2022. We support the work to improve the framework for coordination between the CRA and the IMF. We welcome the progress in developing the BRICS Economic Bulletin 2022 as part of our streamlined CRA research program.

43. We underscore the importance of continued work under the existing work streams, including information security in the financial sector, and the BRICS Payments Task Force (BPTF) as a platform for exchanging experience and knowledge, and welcome the central banks' further cooperation on the payments track.

44. We commit to strengthening intra-BRICS cooperation to intensify the BRICS Partnership on New Industrial Revolution (PartNIR) and collectively create new opportunities for development. We encourage intra-BRICS cooperation in human resource development through BRICS Centre for Industrial Competences, BRICS PartNIR Innovation Centre (BPIC), BRICS Start-up Events and collaboration with other relevant BRICS mechanisms, to carry out training programmes to address challenges of NIR for inclusive and sustainable industrialization. We support the BRICS PartNIR projects to explore cooperation mechanisms with New Development Bank (NDB) and other financial institutions based on market-driven principles. We recognize the importance of BRICS Startup Events including BRICS Innovation Launchpad and BRICS Startup Forum Meeting, aimed to promote networking, interaction, mentorship among Startups in BRICS countries. We welcome the events hosted by the BPIC including the 4th BRICS Forum on PartNIR, the BRICS Industrial Innovation Contest 2022, and the BPIC training programme, which are aimed at translating the vision of PartNIR into real actions and benefits for all BRICS members. We welcome the BRICS Forum on Development of Industrial Internet and Digital Manufacturing, during which representatives from BRICS governments, industry and academia participated and discussed the development of digital manufacturing. We also welcome the release of the BRICS Initiative for Cooperation on Digitalization of Manufacturing.

45. We acknowledge the progress of BRICS cooperation on STI, including outcomes of BRICS STI Steering Committee, inter alia, on advancement of flagship projects initiative aiming to find effective STI solutions to global challenges. We encourage further work on proposals regarding the polycentric BRICS Technology Transfer Center Network, iBRICS Network, joint research projects including flagship projects, BRICS Young Scientist Forum and Young Innovation Prize.

46. We commend the progress of cooperation in the field of ICTs, including the adoption of the terms of reference of the Digital BRICS Task Force (DBTF) and the decision to hold the Digital BRICS Forum in 2022. We encourage the BRICS Institute of Future Networks and the DBTF to make suitable working plans at an early date, and carry out cooperation on R&D and application of new and emerging technologies. We look forward to a fruitful and productive meeting of BRICS Communication Ministers in July 2022. We support the coordination and interaction among the Digital Economy Working Group and the Working Group on ICT Cooperation, as well as the workstreams established within this track, namely the DBTF and the BIFN as practicable to avoid any duplication for advancing the BRICS digital economy in accordance with respective advantages, and within respective domestic legal frameworks.

47. We commend our Customs authorities for the Agreement Between the Governments of BRICS Countries on Cooperation and Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters, and the progress made in areas of mutual administrative assistance, capacity building and law enforcement cooperation. We recognize the importance of BRICS customs enforcement cooperation and will work together to further strengthen it. We support our Customs authorities in holding the BRICS Workshop on Customs Strategy and Capacity Building and the BRICS Workshop on Customs Enforcement Cooperation, for smart cooperation and smart practice sharing, as also for promoting partnership in customs under the theme of "Smart Cooperation for a High-quality Partnership among BRICS Customs".

48. We emphasize the fundamental role of energy security in achieving sustainable development goals. While recognizing that the energy transition of each country is unique according to national circumstances, we underscore the prime importance of securing universal access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy in line with Sustainable Development Goal 7. We welcome the BRICS Energy Report 2022, support joint research and technical cooperation within the BRICS Energy Research Cooperation Platform, and commend the holding of the BRICS Youth Energy Summit and other related activities.

49. We encourage the BRICS Interbank Cooperation Mechanism to continue playing an important role in supporting BRICS economic and trade cooperation, and appreciate the renewal of the Memorandum of Understanding between the Member Development Banks of BRICS Interbank Cooperation Mechanism and the New Development Bank. We welcome the seventh edition of the BRICS Economic Research Award to encourage and stimulate advanced doctoral research by nationals of the BRICS countries on topics of relevance to the BRICS nations.

50. We reiterate the commitments to promote employment for sustainable development, including to develop skills to ensure resilient recovery, gender-responsive employment and social protection policies including workers' rights. We welcome research by the BRICS Network of Labour Research Institutes on employment and income support in the context of COVID-19 crisis outlining impact of the pandemic, response measures and post-COVID-19 changes.

51. We recognize the crucial role that MSMEs play in the BRICS economies and reaffirm the importance of their participation in production networks and value chains. We agree to continue to deepen cooperation on competition amongst BRICS countries and create a fair competition market environment for international economic and trade cooperation. We agree to enhance exchanges and cooperation in the field of standardization and make full use of standards to advance sustainable development. We commit to strengthen cooperation and coordination in areas of tax information exchange, capacity building and innovation in tax administration, and create a signature knowledge product called 'the Best Tax Practices from BRICS' to serve as reference for other developing countries. We support deepening IPR cooperation and promoting exchanges and mutual learning on IPR protection system, and look forward to more practical outcomes in such fields as patent, trademark, and industrial design. We support enhancing BRICS statistical cooperation and continuing to release the BRICS Joint Statistical Publication 2022.

Expediting Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

52. We note with concern that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted efforts to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and reversed years of progress on poverty, hunger, health care, education, climate change, access to clean water, and environmental protection. We reaffirm our commitment to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in all its three dimensions - economic, social and environmental - in a balanced and integrated manner. We stress that the international community should attach more importance to development, revitalize global development partnerships and push for realization of all sustainable development goals by pooling the necessary resources to instill fresh momentum into implementing the 2030 Agenda. We urge donor countries to honour their Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitments and to facilitate capacity building and the transfer of technology along with additional development resources to developing countries, in line with the national policy objectives of recipients. We stress the importance of dialogue between the relevant development agencies from the BRICS countries.

53. We commemorate the 30th anniversary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and call on all parties to adhere to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances and in accordance with the institutional arrangement of nationally determined contributions, and to implement the UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement in an accurate, balanced and comprehensive way, based on existing consensus. We recall relevant provisions of the Paris Agreement, emphasizing that the Paris Agreement aims to strengthen global response to the threat of climate change in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, and that peaking of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions will take longer for developing countries. We underline that the developed countries have historical responsibilities for global climate change, and should take the lead in scaling up mitigation actions and scale up indispensable support to developing countries on finance, technology and capacity-building. We express our support to the incoming Egyptian Presidency of COP27, working towards the success of COP27, and promote COP27 to prioritize implementation and highlight the reinforcement of adaptation and delivery and enhancement of developed countries' commitments to provide financial support and technology transfer to developing countries.

54. We oppose green trade barriers and reiterate our commitment to enhancing coordination on these issues. We underline that all measures taken to tackle climate change and bio-diversity loss must be designed, adopted and implemented in full conformity with the WTO agreements and must not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade and must not create unnecessary obstacles to international trade. We express our concern at any discriminatory measure that will distort international trade, risk new trade frictions and shift burden of addressing climate change to other trading partners, developing countries and BRICS members.

55. We acknowledge the positive outcomes of the first phase of the 15th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) and its Kunming Declaration. We welcome and support China's hosting of the second phase of COP15 and call on all parties to jointly adopt an ambitious, balanced and practical Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework.

56. As BRICS countries produce around 1/3 of the world's food, we stress our commitment to furthering agricultural cooperation and driving sustainable agricultural and rural development of BRICS countries aimed at safeguarding food security of BRICS countries and the world. We emphasize the strategic importance of agriculture inputs, including, inter alia, fertilizers, on ensuring global food security. We reiterate the importance of implementing the Action Plan 2021-2024 for Agricultural Cooperation of BRICS Countries, and welcome the Strategy on Food Security Cooperation of the BRICS Countries.

57. We take note that the breakthroughs in the applications of digital technologies, such as Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (AI) may play an important role towards sustainable development. We take note of the BRICS Forum on Big Data for Sustainable Development. We support information exchanges and technical cooperation on AI technology. We recall the declaration of the 7th BRICS Communications Ministers meeting recognizing the rapid developments and huge potential of Artificial Intelligence technologies and its value to economic growth. We acknowledge the need to cooperate with each other to build trust, confidence and security, as well as transparency and accountability in promoting trustworthy AI to maximize its potential for the benefit of society and humanity as whole with specific emphasis on marginalized and vulnerable groups of population. We express our concerns on the risk, and ethical dilemma related to Artificial Intelligence, such as privacy, manipulation, bias, human-robot interaction, employment, effects and singularity among others. We encourage BRICS members to work together to deal with such concerns, sharing best practices, conduct comparative study on the subject toward developing a common governance approach which would guide BRICS members on Ethical and responsible use of Artificial Intelligence while facilitating the development of AI.

58. We welcome the establishment of the BRICS Joint Committee on Space Cooperation in line with the Agreement on Cooperation on BRICS Remote Sensing Satellite Constellation and the convening of the first joint committee meeting. We are satisfied with the formulation of working procedures for data exchange and joint observation of the BRICS Remote Sensing Satellite Constellation and appreciate the commissioning of data sharing and exchange of the constellation. We encourage BRICS space authorities to continue to effectively utilize the capacity of the Constellation, and to widely promote application with data of the Constellation, aimed at facilitating the sustainable development of BRICS countries.

59. We commend the proposal to organize the BRICS High-level Forum on Sustainable Development. Taking it as an opportunity, we look forward to deepening cooperation on, inter alia, the fight against COVID-19, digital transformation, resilience and stability of industrial and supply chains and low-carbon development.

60. We reiterate the importance of exchanges and dialogues among BRICS disaster management authorities. We encourage cooperation in key areas including comprehensive disaster reduction capacity, disaster resilient infrastructure and emergency rescue and response, with a view to improving the global and regional disaster management response.

61. We express our support to the African Union Agenda 2063 and to Africa´s efforts towards integration through the development of the African Continental Free Trade Area and other means. We stress the importance of issues including industrialization, infrastructure development, food security, health-care, and tackling climate change for the sustainable development of Africa. We support Africa in attaining economic recovery and sustainable development in the post pandemic era.

Deepening People-to-People Exchanges

62. We reaffirm the importance of BRICS people-to-people exchanges in enhancing mutual understanding, friendship and cooperation amongst our nations and people. We appreciate the progress made under China's Chairship in 2022, including in the fields of governance, culture, education, sports, arts, films, media, youth and academic exchanges, and look forward to further exchanges and cooperation in these areas.

63. We appreciate the signing of the Action Plan for the Implementation of the Agreement between the Governments of the BRICS States on cooperation in the Field of Culture (2022-2026), encourage the BRICS countries to promote the development of digitalization in the field of culture, continue to deepen cooperation in the fields of, inter alia, arts and culture, cultural heritage, cultural industry and cultural alliances under the framework of the action plan, and establish a cultural partnership featuring inclusiveness and mutual learning.

64. We acknowledge the urgent need for tourism industry recovery and the importance of increasing mutual tourist flows and will work towards further strengthening the BRICS Alliance for Green Tourism to promote measures, which can shape a more resilient, sustainable and inclusive tourism sector.

65. We appreciate the progress on education and Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) cooperation, especially the establishment of the BRICS TVET Cooperation Alliance which focuses on strengthening communication and dialogue in TVET, promoting substantial cooperation in TVET, integrating TVET with industry, enhancing research collaboration and supporting recognition of TVET standards. Also, the launch of the BRICS Skills Competition will strengthen exchanges and cooperation among the nations. We support the digital transformation in education and TVET space, and commit to ensure education accessibility and equity, and promote the development of quality education. We reiterate the importance of digitalization in education and development of a sustainable education by strengthening the cooperation within BRICS Network University and BRICS University League.

66. We commend the successful holding of the BRICS Business Forum and welcome the Beijing Initiative of BRICS Business community. We encourage the BRICS Business Council to strengthen cooperation, including in the fields of agri-business, aviation, deregulation, digital economy, energy and green economy, financial services, infrastructure, manufacturing, and skills development. We appreciate contributions and activities of the BRICS Women's Business Alliance (WBA) to deepening BRICS economic and trade cooperation. We welcome the holding of the second BRICS Women's Innovation Contest by the BRICS Women's Business Alliance towards empowering women's innovation and entrepreneurship.

67. We commend the progress in sports exchanges and the role it plays in the development of our athletes in a fair, inclusive and non-discriminatory fashion. We look forward to the successful holding of BRICS Sports Ministers Meeting in 2022.

68. We appreciate the holding of the fora pertaining to political parties, think tanks, and civil society organizations. We also acknowledge the proposal for institutionalization of the BRICS Civil Society Organizations Forum.

69. We support the convening of the fifth BRICS Media Forum and the continuation of the BRICS International Journalism Training Program within the framework of the Forum.

70. We look forward to the BRICS Youth Summit, support youth development as a priority and encourage strengthened exchanges among BRICS youth. We welcome the BRICS Film Festival in Shanghai and look forward to enhancing exchanges and cooperation in the field of film. We commend the progress made by BRICS countries in promoting urban development, and appreciate the contribution of mechanisms including BRICS Urbanization Forum, BRICS Friendship Cities and Local Governments Cooperation Forum and BRICS International Municipal Forum to facilitating the building of more friendship city relations among BRICS countries and promoting the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

Institutional Development

71. We note with satisfaction the progress made in BRICS institutional development and stress that BRICS cooperation needs to embrace changes and keep abreast with the times. We shall continue to set clear priorities in our wide-ranging cooperation, on the basis of consensus, and make our strategic partnership more efficient, practical and results-oriented.

72. We emphasize the BRICS efforts of extending its cooperation to other EMDCs and support further promoting the BRICS Outreach and BRICS Plus Cooperation in line with the updated Terms of Reference adopted by the BRICS Sherpas in 2021 through inclusive and equal-footed and flexible practices and initiatives. We commend China's Chairship for hosting the Dialogue session under the theme 'Increased Role of Emerging Markets and Developing Countries in Global Governance' during the Meeting of BRICS Ministers of Foreign Affairs/International Relations on 19 May 2022.

73. We support promoting discussions among BRICS members on BRICS expansion process. We stress the need to clarify the guiding principles, standards, criteria and procedures for this expansion process through Sherpas' channel on the basis of full consultation and consensus.

74. South Africa, Brazil, Russia and India commend China's BRICS Chairship in 2022 and express their gratitude to the government and people of China for holding the XIV BRICS Summit.

75. Brazil, Russia, India and China extend full support to South Africa for its BRICS Chairship in 2023 and the holding of the XV BRICS Summit.
Xi Jinping: BRICS countries need to act with a sense of responsibility and bring positive, stabilizing and constructive strength to the world (Си Цзиньпин: страны БРИКС должны действовать с чувством ответственности и нести в мир позитивную, стабилизирующую и конструктивную силу) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: Xi_Jinping, speech, summit

On the evening of June 23, President Xi Jinping hosted the 14th BRICS Summit in Beijing via video link.

President Xi noted that over the past year, the world has faced the continued spread of COVID-19, a tortuous world economic recovery and increasingly salient peace and security issues. Facing the formidable and complex circumstances, BRICS countries have embraced the BRICS spirit of openness, inclusiveness and win-win cooperation, enhanced solidarity and coordination and jointly tackled the challenges. The BRICS mechanism has demonstrated resilience and vitality. BRICS cooperation has achieved sound progress and results.

President Xi stressed that this Summit is held at a critical juncture in the shaping of the future course of humanity. BRICS countries, as important emerging markets and major developing countries, need to act with a sense of responsibility to bring positive, stabilizing and constructive strength to the world.

President Xi said that first, we need to speak out for equity and justice. We need to encourage the international community to practice true multilateralism and uphold the international system with the UN at its core and the international order underpinned by international law, and urge the world to reject the Cold War mentality and bloc confrontation, oppose unilateral sanctions and abuse of sanctions, and reject the small circles built around hegemonism by forming one big family belonging to a community with a shared future for humanity.

Second, we need to remain firm in our conviction that we will defeat the pandemic and act responsibly to protect our peoples and their lives. We need to build a strong line of defense against the virus, enhance international COVID response cooperation, and jointly defend people's lives and health.

Third, we need to pool strength for economic recovery, step up macro policy coordination, keep industrial and supply chains secure and unclogged, build an open world economy, and forestall and defuse major risks and challenges in global development, to work for more inclusive and resilient economic growth.

Fourth, we need to advocate sustainable and people-centered development, invest more in poverty alleviation, food, education, health and so on, and promote the implementation of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, to bring stronger, greener and healthier global development.

President Xi said he looks forward to an in-depth and vibrant discussion under the theme of "Fostering High-quality Partnership and Ushering in a New Era of Global Development" to jointly contribute wisdom and ideas to the high-quality development of BRICS cooperation.
Keep Abreast of the Trend of the Times to Shape a Bright Future (Будьте в курсе тенденций времени, чтобы формировать светлое будущее) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: business_forum, speech, xi_jinping

Keynote Speech by H.E. Xi Jinping
President of the People's Republic of China
At the Opening Ceremony of the BRICS Business Forum

22 June 2022

Dear Colleagues,
Members of the Business Community,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

I am glad to attend the BRICS Business Forum, and I wish to extend a warm welcome to all of you.

Right now, our world is facing drastic changes and a pandemic both unseen in a century. Various security challenges keep emerging. The world economy still faces strong headwinds on its path toward recovery, and global development has suffered major setbacks. Where is the world headed: Peace or war? Progress or regression? Openness or isolation? Cooperation or confrontation? These are choices of the times that we are confronted with.

Human history, like a river, keeps surging forward, with moments of both calm waters and huge waves. Despite changes in an evolving global environment, the historical trend of openness and development will not reverse course, and our shared desire to meet challenges together through cooperation will remain as strong as ever. We should stand high and not allow ourselves to be distracted by fleeting clouds, and we should have a keen appreciation of the law governing the advance of history. We should refuse to be led astray by any turn of events or intimidated by any risk. We should rise to challenge and forge ahead with resolve toward the goal of building a community with a shared future for mankind.

First, we should embrace solidarity and coordination and jointly maintain world peace and stability. We in China believe that "history, if not forgotten, can serve as a guide for the future". In the past century, humanity have gone through the scourge of two world wars and the dark shadow of the Cold War. The tragedies of the past tell us that hegemony, group politics and bloc confrontation bring no peace or security; they only lead to wars and conflicts. The Ukraine crisis is another wake-up call for all in the world. It reminds us that blind faith in the so-called "position of strength" and attempts to expand military alliances and seek one's own security at the expense of others will only land oneself in a security dilemma.

History tells us that peace, which is the common cause of humanity, should be pursued and defended by all. Only when we all cherish and uphold peace and never forget the painful lessons of war can there be hope of peace. Facing a volatile and unstable world, we should stay true to the pledge of the UN Charter and fulfill the mission of maintaining peace. Not long ago, I put forward the Global Security Initiative, calling on all countries to stay committed to the vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security; stay committed to respecting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all countries; stay committed to abiding by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter; stay committed to taking the legitimate security concerns of all countries seriously; stay committed to peacefully resolving differences and disputes between countries through dialogue and consultation; and stay committed to maintaining security in both traditional and non-traditional domains. We in the international community should reject zero-sum games and jointly oppose hegemonism and power politics. We should build a new type of international relations based on mutual respect, fairness, justice and win-win cooperation. We should be clear that we are a community in which all countries share a common stake, and we should see that the light of peace will reach all corners of the world.

Second, we should reach out to each other and jointly promote sustainable global development. Development holds the key to solving various difficult problems and delivering better lives to the people. Today, the global development process has hit major roadblocks, the momentum of international development cooperation is being weakened, and development gap between the North and the South keeps widening. As a result, the global efforts to implement the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development have suffered major setbacks. Almost 1.2 billion people in nearly 70 countries are confronted with COVID-19, food, energy and debt crises. What has been achieved in decades of global poverty reduction efforts could be lost.

Last year, I put forward the Global Development Initiative, and I called on all countries to implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, forge united, equal, balanced and inclusive global development partnership, and promote cooperation in a wide range of areas such as poverty reduction, public health, education, digital connectivity and industrialization. We should deepen cooperation to better safeguard food and energy security. We should seize opportunities presented by the new scientific and technological revolution and industrial transformation, and promote the flow of factors of production that enable innovation globally. We should help developing countries speed up development of the digital economy and green transformation. We should also engage in cooperation on COVID-19 response and provide more anti-COVID medicines to developing countries so as to beat the virus at an early date.

In two days, China will host the High-level Dialogue on Global Development to discuss ways to promote global development. We should respond to people's concerns, pursue the larger interests of all countries, and steer global development to a new era to deliver benefit to all.

Third, we should tide over difficulties together and jointly pursue win-win cooperation. At present, some important industrial and supply chains are suffering from deliberate disruptions, commodity prices remain high and are fluctuating, global inflation keeps rising, the international financial market is in turmoil, and global economic recovery is losing steam. People have reason to be concerned that the world economy might slip into a crisis.

At this critical juncture, tiding over difficulties together and pursuing cooperation is the only way for us to forestall an economic crisis. We should come together with a united purpose and strengthen macroeconomic policy coordination to prevent the slowdown and even halt of the global recovery. Major developed countries should adopt responsible economic policies and avoid negative policy spillovers that may take a heavy toll on developing countries. It has been proved time and again that sanctions are a boomerang and a double-edged sword. To politicize the global economy and turn it into one's tool or weapon, and willfully impose sanctions by using one's primary position in the international financial and monetary systems will only end up hurting one's own interests as well as those of others, and inflict suffering on everyone.

Fourth, we should be inclusive and jointly expand openness and integration. The rapid economic globalization that we have seen since the end of the Cold War has greatly boosted the movement of goods and capital and advances in technology and civilization. A more open and inclusive world will create greater development opportunities for all and deliver a more prosperous future for all.

For some time, however, economic globalization has faced headwinds and countercurrents. Some countries attempt to decouple with others, sever supply chains and build "a small yard with high fences". There is widespread concern in the international community that should such a tendency continue, the global economy will become compartmentalized and mutually exclusive. Economic globalization is a response to development of productivity and, as such, represents an unstoppable historical trend. Anyone who attempts to turn back the wheel of history and block others' way will only have his own path blocked.

As an ancient Chinese saying goes, "Constant piling up of earth makes Mount Tai great; ceaseless inflow of rivers makes the ocean deep." Inclusiveness, shared benefits and win-win outcomes is what we should pursue. We should stay committed to openness and inclusiveness, eliminate all barriers to the development of productivity, and steer globalization in the right direction. This will boost the free flow of capital and technology, unleash the full potential of innovation and creativity, and foster synergy in boosting global economic growth. We should uphold the WTO-centered multilateral trading system, remove barriers to trade, investment and technology, and keep the global economy open. We should promote extensive consultation and joint contribution to deliver shared benefits, enhance global economic governance, and increase the representation and say of emerging markets and developing countries. This will ensure that all countries enjoy equal rights, follow the rules as equals, and share equal opportunities.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

This year, facing a complicated and challenging domestic and international environment for development, China has risen to various challenges and taken well-coordinated steps to respond to COVID-19 and pursue economic and social development. Putting the people and their lives first, China has built a strong line of defense against the virus, and consolidated the gains made in COVID-19 response. Thanks to these efforts, we have protected people's lives and health and ensured overall stable performance in economic and social development to the maximum extent possible. We will step up macroeconomic policy adjustment, and adopt more forceful measures to deliver the economic and social development goals for the whole year and minimize the impact of COVID-19.

In the second half of this year, the Communist Party of China will convene its 20th National Congress, which will chart the course for the next phase of China's development. We will ground our efforts in the new development stage, follow the new development philosophy, foster a new development paradigm and strive to achieve high-quality development. China will continue to pursue opening-up against higher standards, develop new systems for a higher-standard open economy, and continue to foster a market- and law-based and internationalized business environment. I warmly welcome you to invest and do business in China, strengthen business cooperation with China, and share in China's development opportunities.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

The BRICS mechanism is an important cooperation platform for emerging markets and developing countries. The business community is a dynamic force driving BRICS' effective cooperation. Over the years, you in the business communities of BRICS countries have kept exploring new ground, unlocked the potential of cooperation among the five countries, and made important contribution to the development of BRICS countries. Your efforts deserve full recognition.

BRICS cooperation has now entered a new stage of high-quality development. I hope that you business leaders will continue to act with tenacity and in a pioneering spirit, and champion open, innovative and shared development so as to add new impetus to BRICS cooperation. You should tap into the complementarity of BRICS countries' diverse economic structures and resources, upgrade cooperation on trade, investment and finance, expand cooperation on cross-border e-commerce, logistics, local currencies and credit rating, and keep industrial and supply chains safe and unclogged. I hope you will actively participate in building the BRICS Partnership on New Industrial Revolution, strengthen cooperation on digital economy, smart manufacturing, clean energy and low-carbon technology, and support the industrial restructuring and upgrading in BRICS countries. I hope you will advance cooperation on energy, food, infrastructure and skill training, fulfill your social responsibilities, and see that more benefits of development will reach everyone in a more equitable way.

I am convinced that as long as we hoist high the sail of mutual benefit and win-win and keep a steady hand on the tiller of solidarity and cooperation, we will break waves and steer the giant ship of BRICS countries toward a brighter future!

To conclude, I wish the BRICS Business Forum a full success!

Thank you.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs introduced the BRICS Business Forum (В МИД представили Деловой форум БРИКС) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: cooperation, mofa, business_council

Shenzhen TV: The BRICS Business Forum opened on June 22 and President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech at the opening ceremony. Can you tell us more about it?

Wang Wenbin: The 2022 BRICS Business Forum was held in an online plus offline format in Beijing on June 22. President Xi Jinping attended the opening ceremony of the BRICS Business Forum in virtual format and delivered a keynote speech. South African President Cyril Ramaphosa, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended and addressed the opening ceremony. You may refer to the readout that we have released.

BRICS is an important platform for cooperation among emerging markets and developing countries, and BRICS countries have become engines driving world economic recovery and growth. This year is the BRICS China Year. Thanks to the active support of all sides, China, as the BRICS chair this year, has successfully held over 90 meetings and events at various levels so far this year, covering political, security, economic, trade, financial, people-to-people and cultural fields as well as sustainable development and public health. These activities have enabled important progress in BRICS cooperation in various sectors. This week is indeed the BRICS Week, with the hosting of a series of BRICS events including the BRICS Business Forum, the 14th BRICS Summit and the High-level Dialogue on Global Development. These three important events will pool wide consensus on BRICS cooperation and inject strong impetus into the recovery of world economy.

Right now, our world is facing drastic changes and a pandemic both unseen in a century. Various security challenges keep emerging. The world economy still faces strong headwinds on its path toward recovery, and global development has suffered major setbacks. The world is confronted with important choices between peace and war, progress and regression, openness and isolation, and cooperation and confrontation. President Xi noted in his keynote speech at the opening ceremony of the BRICS Business Forum that we should embrace solidarity and coordination and jointly maintain world peace and stability; we should reach out to each other and jointly promote sustainable global development; we should tide over difficulties together and jointly pursue win-win cooperation; and we should be inclusive and jointly expand openness and integration. It is hoped that business leaders will continue to champion open, innovative and shared development so as to add new impetus to BRICS cooperation and see that more benefits of development will reach everyone in a more equitable way.

President Xi's speech gave an insightful answer to "where the world is headed" -- an important question of our times. The speech aims to bring confidence and strength to a volatile and unstable world and is warmly received by participants. Participants said the speech is rich in content and inspiring. It charts the course for deepening practical BRICS cooperation, points the way forward for upholding world security and stability, and paints the blueprint for promoting global openness and development. The speech enhances parties' confidence in China's economic prospect and sets the right direction for businesses to participate in and support BRICS cooperation.

South African President Cyril Ramaphosa, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi thanked President Xi Jinping and the Chinese side for the extensive preparation for hosting this business forum. They said that with the world focusing on post-pandemic recovery, the role of BRICS countries is further elevated. Fostering high-quality BRICS partnership is particularly important fort advancing global development in the new era. BRICS countries will continue to deepen cooperation in economic integration, do their utmost to reduce the impact of poverty and food and energy crisis on people's livelihood, and promote sustainable and inclusive development.

During the Forum, participants had panel discussions on world economic recovery, green transformation, digital economy, health cooperation and resilience of industrial and supply chains. They also released the Beijing Initiative of BRICS Business Community.

Today, the 14th BRICS Summit will be held. We believe that with the concerted efforts of all parties, the Summit will be a full success. It will elevate BRICS cooperation to a higher level and make greater contribution to world peace and development.
BRICS Academies of Sciences Signed Beijing Declaration on Big Data for Sustainable Development (Академии наук БРИКС подписали Пекинскую декларацию о больших данных для устойчивого развития) / China, June, 2022
Keywords:concluded_agreements, innovations

On June 16, the BRICS Academies of Sciences Beijing Declaration on Big Data for Sustainable Development was signed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Academy of Science of South Africa, the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Indian National Science Academy.

The Declaration points out that science, technology and innovation (STI) are vital driving forces to tackle global challenges and achieve the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The BRICS Academies of Sciences recognize the contribution of big data to the evidence-based policymaking towards sustainable development, and further emphasize the importance of strengthening STI collaboration and data sharing.

The BRICS Academies pledge to strengthen a comprehensive partnership on STI cooperation, especially on big data for sustainable development through various collaborative forms, and give priorities to the fields of Agriculture, Food Security and Poverty Alleviation, Digital Economy, Sustainable Urban and Rural Development, Biodiversity Conservation, Climate Actions and Disaster Reduction.

Held in Beijing on 26-27 April, the BRICS Forum on Big Data for Sustainable Development provided a platform for the BRICS countries to strengthen exchanges and cooperation in sustainable development. As the important outcome of the Forum, the Declaration will further promote extensive collaboration among the science community in BRICS countries to tackle common challenges of health, climate change and food security etc., and actively contribute to achieving the SDGs.

Investment and Finance
Investment and finance in BRICS
GT Voice: It is urgent for BRICS to push for fairer, safer global financial system (GT Voice: БРИКС необходимо срочно продвигать более справедливую и безопасную глобальную финансовую систему) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: economic_challenges, expert_opinion

With the 14th BRICS Summit to be held on Thursday, a number of officials and experts have recently voiced their expectations for the BRICS mechanism to play a greater role in promoting fairness and security in the global financial and trade order.

At present, Western sanctions against Russia have sparked multiple crises faced by the global economy, dealing a heavy blow to the international economic and financial order that emerging markets and developing countries rely on for survival. To a certain extent, these sanctions have made BRICS countries aware of the urgency of strengthening their cooperation and solidarity. As major emerging market economies with global influence, BRICS countries now share the common will of pushing forward with major reforms addressing the global payment system.

None of the BRICS countries has joined the Western economic sanctions against Russia. The reason why the BRICS countries apart from Russia all refused to join such sanctions is because they share the same antipathy to unilateral sanctions imposed by the West.

It is now crystal clear that Western powers safeguard their own hegemonic self-interests through sanctions, with no regard for the interests of emerging and developing economies at all and for bringing new uncertainties and risks to the world. Behind the sanctions is the dollar hegemony.

For decades, the dollar has been the most important reserve currency in the world and the most widely used currency for global economic and trade settlement. The outsized role of the dollar in the global payment system has not only offered the US a huge financial advantage in the world economic order but also enabled it to effectively use it as a weapon to punish its adversaries. Consequently, BRICS' interactions in terms of financial, trade, investment and other areas have often been affected to varying degrees.

It should be pointed out that the purpose of establishing the BRICS was never aimed at forming a small clique targeting other parties. The reason why BRICS countries came together is because of a common need to address the injustice and unfairness in the existing international economic, financial and trade systems and to seek reform and adjustment in the global economic order to address the legitimate concerns of developing countries.

The New Development Bank (NDB), also known as the BRICS Bank, is an important trial by the BRICS member countries to promote not only intra-bloc cooperation but also fairness in the international financial governance, even though, the NDB has had its share of challenges, like its payment mechanism being subject to the US' dollar hegemony.

Indeed, the financial implications of US sanctions have increased the urgency of de-dollarization around the world. It is not just the BRICS, but also many other developing economies that realize the needs to reduce the role of the dollar in global payments. In bilateral settings, discussions about exploring new currencies for trade settlement are becoming increasingly popular and common, an indication that the US' abuse of its financial power has fueled the trend for de-dollarization.

Therefore, one of the main questions facing the BRICS is how to further integrate these needs among various countries by increasing new currency settlement and building new, safer payment systems, among others. If they can achieve that goal, other developing countries will also join in them when it comes to developing alternative financial infrastructure in response to reckless US sanctions.

So it can be expected that the need for BRICS to step up and strive for a fairer, safer international economic and financial order will become increasingly more urgent. The future of the BRICS hinges on their ability to deepen cooperation and overcome challenges. In any case, there is no way for the global economy to be ruled forever by the arbitrary hegemony of the US dollar.
NDB President Marcos Troyjo Reported to the 14th BRICS Summit (Президент НБР Маркос Тройо выступил с докладом на 14-м саммите БРИКС) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: ndb, speech

On June 23, 2022, Mr. Marcos Troyjo, President of the New Development Bank (NDB), reported to the 14th BRICS Summit, held under the chairship of the People's Republic of China under the theme of "Foster High-quality BRICS Partnership, Usher in a New Era for Global Development."

"NDB has approved over USD 30 billion for infrastructure and sustainable development. We are talking about more than 80 projects that make peoples' lives better," said Mr. Marcos Troyjo. NDB projects expand transportation networks, reduce CO2 emissions, and improve clean energy and water supplies, added NDB President.

Last year, NDB welcomed the admission of Bangladesh, UAE, Egypt and Uruguay as new member countries, highlighted the NDB President. "Our new members bring over 280 million people that can benefit from NDB's mission. They strengthen our role as a platform to nurture cooperation," said Mr. Marcos Troyjo. "We will go on adding new members to the NDB in a gradual and balanced manner. This will increase our voice and our contribution to global economic governance."

NDB recently moved to its permanent Headquarters Building in Shanghai, said Mr. Marcos Troyjo, expressing gratitude to the Government of China for its strong support. "Our new home is more than just an office building. Modern, sustainable and vibrant — it is a powerful representation of what NDB stands for," said Mr. Marcos Troyjo. "This year, we are establishing our Indian Regional Office in GIFT City," he added.

Commenting on the Bank's General Strategy for 2022–2026 entitled "Scaling Up Development Finance for a Sustainable Future", Mr. Marcos Troyjo said that over the next five years, we expect to approve USD 30 billion in new projects, increasing our financing in local currencies and expanding our partnership with the private sector. "Our new strategy powers the NDB to deal with new development paradigms," highlighted Mr. Marcos Troyjo.

The 14th BRICS Summit Beijing Declaration noted the Bank's progress as follows: "We congratulate New Development Bank (NDB) on its relocation to its permanent headquarters building in Shanghai as well as the opening of NDB's regional office in India. We welcome the decisions on admission of four new members to the NDB and look forward to further membership expansion in a gradual and balanced manner in terms of geographic representation and comprising of both developed and developing countries, to enhance the NDB's international influence as well as the representation and voice of EMDCs in global governance. We support the NDB's goals of attaining the highest possible credit rating and institutional development. We appreciate the vital role of the NDB in addressing the impact of the pandemic and assisting in the economic recovery in member countries. We note the second General Strategy approved by the Board of Governors at its annual meeting and look forward to its smooth implementation. We encourage the Bank to follow the member-led and demand-driven principle, mobilize financing from diversified sources, enhance innovation and knowledge exchange, assist member countries in achieving sustainable development goals and further improve efficiency and effectiveness to fulfill its mandate, aiming to be a premier multilateral development institution."

Background information

New Development Bank was established with the purpose of mobilizing resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in BRICS and other emerging market economies and developing countries, complementing the efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global growth and development. The admission of the first four new members into the NDB in 2021 – Bangladesh, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, and Uruguay – heralded the beginning of the Bank's expansion as a global multilateral institution.

NDB Established India Regional Office in Gujarat International Finance Tec-City, Appointed Iro Director General (NDB открыл индийский региональный офис в Гуджарате International Finance Tec-City, а также объявил о назначении генерального директора офиса) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: ndb

On June 20, 2022, the New Development Bank (NDB) announced the appointment of Dr. DJ Pandian as the Director General heading the Bank's Indian Regional Office (IRO) in Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT City).

Dr. DJ Pandian is the former Vice President and Chief Investment Officer at Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Dr. Pandian has an extensive career spanning 30 years with the Indian Administrative Services, holding key positions at the State, National, and International levels. During his career, he has served in the Government of Gujarat in various capacities. Dr. Pandian established the Gujarat Energy Research and Management Institute and has served as chairman, director and trustee with a number of state-owned enterprises.

"The NDB has approved 20 projects in India for about USD 7.2. billion. The IRO will support the effective and efficient implementation of these projects and work closely with Project Implementation Agencies on achieving desired project outcomes. IRO will also play an important role in preparing new projects and assisting government institutions in capacity building and in providing technical assistance," said Dr. DJ Pandian

The establishment of the India Regional Office is an important milestone for the Bank as it marks the fulfilment of a commitment made by the founders of the Bank in setting up regional offices, beyond headquarters, in each of our other four founding countries – South Africa, Brazil, Russia and India, he added.

The IRO will work closely with the Government, public and private sector agencies, and other relevant stakeholders in the Indian sub-continent to identify projects that have strong development impact and which are aligned with the national development priorities.

Background information

New Development Bank was established with the purpose of mobilizing resources for infrastructure and sustainable development projects in BRICS and other emerging market economies and developing countries, complementing the efforts of multilateral and regional financial institutions for global growth and development.

The Agreement Between the New Development Bank and the Government of the Republic of India on the Hosting of the New Development Bank India Regional Office in the Republic of India was signed by Mr. Marcos Troyjo, the President of the New Development Bank and Mr. Tarun Bajaj, Secretary, Economic Affairs, Government of India on 11 December 2020.

Political Events
Political events in the public life of BRICS
Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov's interview with the National State Television and Radio Company of the Republic of Belarus, Moscow, June 23, 2022 (Интервью Министра иностранных дел С.В.Лаврова Национальной государственной телерадиокомпании Республики Беларусь, Москва, 23 июня 2022 г.) / Russia, May, 2022
Keywords: sergey_lavrov, quotation

Question: The developments that unfolded in recent years and the gradual global escalation were seen by many as separate things. Today, the puzzle has been put together: a failed rebellion in Belarus with an eye towards transferring it permanently to Russia, a Polish-Baltic provocation involving refugees, the deployment of NATO troops near our borders, the open flooding of Ukraine with weapons and sponsorship of the Nazis and Russophobia in Ukraine, and massive sanctions pressure. One can get a sense that all this is one sweeping special operation by the West, which they have been cynically planning for a long time now.

Sergey Lavrov: I agree. This can have different names: a special operation or a strategic policy of cancelling any country that dares to contradict the West. Russian President Vladimir Putin spoke to this in detail at the recently held St Petersburg International Economic Forum. We are well aware of his views on the matter. All of that is connected with the sentiment and the illusion that the West "suddenly" developed.

When the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact were disappearing, the West, through the mouth of the renowned political scientist Francis Fukuyama, declared "the end of history" saying that from now on the Western-style liberal democratic order will dominate on Earth and will guide other countries in their policies. Admittedly, Russia's first years after the collapse of the Soviet Union provided the West with grounds to believe that this concept would be approved and Russia would put up with its new subordinate position in international relations.

We are well aware of the most recent historical developments. The early 2000s saw Russia embarking on a course towards returning to national identity and religious, cultural and family traditions and values. Back then, the West started mobilising forces and means to suppress dissent. President Vladimir Putin appeared with the Munich speech in 2007. Everyone who had ears was given the chance to hear. Most didn't seem to hear, but those who did decided that the "rebels" must be taught a lesson. Next, threats were created on the borders of Russia and Belarus as our closest neighbour and ally. We know what followed next.

Clearly, these designs are doomed to fail. We will push for democratising international relations and do so not on some made-up basis like the "rules" that the West never stops talking about, but on the basis of international law, primarily, the UN Charter principles which say that the UN is based on respect for the sovereign equality of states. This is what we are striving to achieve. I'm convinced that we will get there.

Question: When the events of 2020 took place in Belarus, some people in Russia were poking fun at Minsk saying that "external intervention," foreign intelligence services and hybrid war were a "purely internal agenda." Later, it turned out that a similar scenario was launched with regard to Moscow with the same elements and resources working against you. Do you see these parallels? Do you share the opinion that the first "blow" against Moscow was dealt in 2020 when, fortunately, the "rebellion" failed?

Sergey Lavrov: This is part of the same fierce campaign which shows the unipolar world's agony. That is why the West has been acting so rabidly over the past couple of years, especially after the special military operation started in Ukraine.

We heard "half-joking" assessments of what was happening in Belarus and the available evidence. Those were political scientists who are constantly looking for something in all places to express their negative thoughts about the Russian and Belarusian leaders. We are well aware of that.

That unpleasant episode clearly showed that we are genuine allies. Russian officials had no doubt that we must help the fraternal allied people and state. The CSTO had no doubts in January, either, when something like that was undertaken in Kazakhstan, but in a different form and scale.

It was amusing to hear about the equality of large and small nations under the UN Charter (thinking back to the events in Kazakhstan) seeing the West react nervously to the speed with which the CSTO responded to President of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev's appeal. Later, he said he was not happy with the fact that the CSTO was called in. I won't be revealing a secret (the Western media reported this), that emissaries from the EU (I'm sure the Americans do the same), when they travel around Central Asia, seek explanations from Kazakhstan about what happened and why it took such action to suppress demonstrations. They consider themselves entitled to demand explanations although they would be better off addressing their own issues that are snowballing.

Question: Some people believe that Belarus held out in 2020 owing to two factors: the personality of President Alexander Lukashenko and Russia's support.

Sergey Lavrov: I share this opinion. I have already said that Russia provided political and moral support without delay. It was ready to render any other assistance to prevent a coup d'etat.

Question: We are seeing today that the West has declared a war on the entire world. At the same time, it fears the truth like the plague. It is enough to mention the closure of YouTube channels, Belarusian and Russian TV satellite channels and popular Telegram resources in Belarus. Zombifying the Western public to the point of absurdity – is it a sign of weakness? The values that they tried to teach us during all these years, democracy – this smokescreen instantly collapsed like a house of cards.

Sergey Lavrov: The West fears honest competition. Many people are aware of this. Hence, a desire to cancel the culture of any country that stands on its own, nationally-oriented positions, a ban on TV broadcasting, expulsion of objectionable politicians from social media and suppression of everything that contradicts in some way the neo-liberal vision and arrangement of the world. This happens all the time. The West does not live in accordance with the truth.

In one of his recent speeches, President of Russia Vladimir Putin called the collective West "an empire of lies." A succinct statement. I agree with it one hundred percent.

Question: Provocations and lies even at the official level have become a brand of Ukrainian politics. In his recent interview, Petr Poroshenko said that Kiev never thought of settling the conflict peacefully and needed eight years to bide its time and build up military power. It appears that all promises to stop hostilities were empty words. Instead of fulfilling the Minsk Agreements, they were methodically bombing Donbass.

Sergey Lavrov: I am not at all surprised that lies have become a brand of the Ukrainian regime. This was the case under Petr Poroshenko and is the same under Vladimir Zelensky.

Recently, dressed in camouflage and a T-shirt and frowning in earnest, Zelensky dismissed as false the reports about the shelling of the centre of Donbass and residential areas by the Ukrainian armed forces. He did it although the Western media, which is doing all it can to justify the actions of Ukrainian neo-Nazis, had already admitted that reports blaming the Russian armed forces for these attacks were false.

It is common knowledge how Donetsk is being shelled. Any foreign embassy (if this is not shown in Europe and the US) has an opportunity to watch onsite reports here in Minsk. It is impossible even to imagine that they don't know the truth. Most of them are honest, professional diplomats. They surely report the truth to their capitals but the latter paint a completely different picture of the events.

What surprises me more is not so much the lies that we hear from Kiev every day and every hour as by the way the Kiev's patrons have started playing this game of lies.

They have been shifting the blame from Kiev all the time, not just now. You mentioned eight years after the anti-constitutional coup d'etat. This coup was the result of the opposition simply spitting in the face of the European Union, on behalf of which France, Germany and Poland guaranteed the agreement between Viktor Yanukovych and three opposition leaders. All this was torn up the following morning; the need to cancel the regional status of the Russian language was called a priority and armed thugs were sent to Crimea. This is how it all started.

However, recalling these events, the West merely says that we "annexed" Crimea for no reason. They cancel everything that happened before, and not only since February 2014 but also the previous decade when Ukraine was forced to make a critical choice between staying with Europe or Russia.

Ministers, other officials and government members said this bluntly prior to every election in Ukraine. They lied when guaranteeing the agreement with Yanukovych (torn into pieces by the opposition) and the Minsk Agreements (which Germany and France presented as their achievement). Every year and every month, we urged them to look at the outrageous conduct of Kiev: the President of Ukraine publicly refused to abide by the Minsk Agreements. They kept a low profile and asked us to show understanding for the Ukrainian state. Such is the nature of our European partners. We know it well by now. It has been turned inside out.

Question: As a reporter, I covered the events on Maidan. Please believe me, I got an eyeful of the local flair and the rest of it – the revolutionary racket, the rosy vision, and especially what came after it.

Sergey Lavrov: Didn't you get the cookies?

Question: No, we didn't. And I would not like to replay this in other countries.

Given the Ukrainian partners' behaviour, is it worthwhile, in principle, to offer them a different version of agreements – tentatively speaking, a Minsk-3? Or is it all of no importance now?

Sergey Lavrov: It would be meaningless in the form that our attempts to come to terms with them took over the last eight years. I mean the agreement that was broken off by Maidan in February 2014 and later the Minsk Agreements.

We don't have to travel far afield. The Ukrainians proposed talks just a few days after the start of the special military operation. We accepted the offer right away. During several meetings, the Ukrainians just went through the motions. They were sitting at the table with their baseball caps on and demonstrating their moral values and the cultural heritage of their ancestors. In Istanbul in late March they tabled a document. We took it as a basis for talks. On April 15, we submitted to the Ukrainian side a draft agreement based on their document. But immediately after Istanbul (we know this for sure) the Americans and the British snapped at them, because it is the Anglo-Saxons who are ruling the roost in Kiev. A day later, a heinous provocation was staged in Bucha. After the facts of a hypocritical and cynical frame-up were revealed, everyone immediately fell silent about it. Today, few people mention anything in connection with Bucha. But we take an interest in whether they have learned the names of the people whose bodies were found with so much pomp and demonstrated to the whole world? No one is saying anything. They are also keeping silence about The Guardian reporting that the first results of the autopsies showed that the majority of these people had been killed by fragments of artillery shells. This information immediately receded into the shadow.

Since April 15, Ukraine has not been available for negotiations. Vladimir Zelensky now says that he is ready for talks and there will be peace anyway, then a day later he claims that for the talks to be restarted, Russia must withdraw to the February 24 line, with Boris Johnson making encouraging noises. The two look organic beside each other.

The most important thing is that the Istanbul meeting was held on March 29. It was said there that Ukraine should be a neutral, nuclear-free and non-bloc country, which simultaneously would be given security guarantees. These guarantees (as stipulated by the Ukrainians) would not extend to Crimea and Donbass. We were ready to discuss this. But they disrupted the talks.

When at last they have the grace to suggest resuming the diplomatic process (something, as I understand, the Europeans are insisting they should do, but the Anglo-Saxons do not permit them), we will see what situation has emerged on the ground. There are liberated areas there. The majority of the population cannot so much as think of returning under the control of the neo-Nazi authorities or the authorities that are in every way conniving at neo-Nazism.

Question: I think that over the past eight years Kiev has set a unique record by destroying its sovereignty in such a short time. There is very little left of a once independent state.

Sergey Lavrov: They decided to strengthen sovereignty by cancelling everything that is Russian and non-Ukrainian. They wanted heroes who are Ukrainian as understood by neo-Nazis, who glorify Roman Shukhevich and Stepan Bandera and demolish monuments to those who liberated Ukraine, as well as cancel the Russian language, education and media. They have cancelled all of that.

Regrettably, Moldova is now trying to cancel everything Russian as well. The [Moldovan] President has signed a law banning Russian news in the country. This is sad.

Ukraine tried to build its sovereignty by cancelling its own history. But it does not have a history without the Russian people, none at all. They entered that path. The West rubbed its hands and pushed it further down that slippery path, encouraging that approach and that conceptual vision of the Ukrainian state just to harm Russia, create threats to and unbalance Russia and its closest allies, as we found out in the past few years.

Question: Suppose talks are held after all, and the leaders of Russia and Ukraine sit down to negotiations, would you accept the initiative of the Belarusian President, who said recently that Belarus must take part in the talks, considering that the West regards it as a co-aggressor?

Sergey Lavrov: We will be delighted to accept the invitation of the Belarusian President to meet in Belarus. But I wouldn't make premature plans. Today I don't see any possibility for Ukraine to make any proposals, and we are not going to suggest anything either. We have made our proposals long ago. The ball is now in their court. I don't believe that Kiev will be allowed to resume talks.

Question: This is a matter of external management. Another widely discussed subject is food security. Europe, which used to be well fed, is thinking about such simple things now as what to eat and drink, and what to grow on their land. Belarus was criticised for paying too much attention to agriculture. They see now that it is an extremely important sector. Ukrainian grain has become a highly desired product. Antonio Guterres phones Alexander Lukashenko, and Russia is being pressed from all sides to help them out with logistics. Paradoxically, nobody has so much as mentioned the sanctions, which are the main obstacle in this case.

Sergey Lavrov: It's like the warped reality of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. In one word, the empire of lies. Yes, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has put forth an initiative and sent his delegates here. President Vladimir Putin explained that there is an elementary route without any talks or memorandums. It lies across Belarus. It only takes, as you have said, to set up logistics and financial chains. There are also other, more expensive routes via Romania and Poland. As for ports, it was not Russia who blocked them. Starting in March this year, our armed forces announced numerous safe corridors between the mined territorial waters of Ukraine and the Bosporus. We are ready to cooperate with Turkey. But first Ukraine must clear the port of mines. It doesn't want to do this. At the same time, Antonio Guterres has been trying to settle the problem of transporting grain via Ukrainian ports regardless of the corridors we open every day. He wants first of all to settle the problem of Ukrainian grain and only after that to talk about Russian grain. We are not being encouraged to make haste.

This situation is creating problems for many developing countries. The UN Secretary-General's actions are protracting the food crisis and preventing the expeditious transportation of grain there. This is regrettable. He sent his representative, Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Rebecca Grynspan, to Russia. She met with Deputy Prime Minister Andrey Belousov.

All the proposals President Putin formulated have been put on paper and sent to New York. We have done everything we could. We are concerned about the slow reaction to what is described as a pressing matter. It cannot be ruled out that the UN Secretariat is under strong pressure from those who would like to establish external management at the organisation.

Question: I have a feeling that if the problem of hunger gets worse, and this is quite likely, Minsk and Moscow can be blamed for it as well. They would say: "We proposed you do this, but you didn't agree."

Sergey Lavrov: We should not worry about this because our conscience is clean. You and we have explained all there is to explain. Everyone understands the hypocrisy of the demagogic groaning about the absence of sanctions on food and fertiliser. Yes, food is not under sanctions, but all the necessary steps for delivering it to consumers fall under sanctions. By the way, the Americans quickly came to their senses and lifted sanctions on fertiliser. There are some commodity flows. The European Union remains irretrievably confident in its own rectitude and infallibility. Contrary to common sense, they are continuously repeating the mantra that they must defeat Russia and, apparently, Belarus as well.

Question: Obviously, there will be no harvest without fertiliser. Everything will be more time consuming and more expensive without logistics. What is the West hoping to achieve in this case? People have already been hit by these sanctions.

Sergey Lavrov: I'm not sure. I think the West is nervous. Let them figure it out themselves. We have done all we could. We offered them honest cooperation in areas of mutual interest, and this offer is valid but they do not want it.

Question: Obviously, the world cannot stand still. If a chain is disrupted somewhere, another point of growth replaces it. Now there is talk about creating a new G8 without the United States, Germany and France, that is, a club of countries that respect normal, equitable and balanced dialogue. Do you think this is a promising idea?

Sergey Lavrov: We don't need a new G8. We already have structures relying on the principles you mentioned, primarily in Eurasia. The EAEU is actively promoting integration processes with the PRC, aligning China's Belt and Road Initiative with the Eurasian integration plans. Members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations are taking a close look at these plans. A number of them are signing free trade zone agreements with the EAEU. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation is also part of these processes.

All this is happening in the CIS and CSTO (if we take the military and political aspects) and the Union State of Russia and Belarus. There is one more structure beyond the geographic borders of Eurasia. It is BRICS ( Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). This association is relying less and less on the Western style of doing business, and on Western rules for international currency, financial and trade institutions. They prefer more equitable methods that do not make any processes depend on the dominant role of the dollar or some other currency.

The G20 fully represents BRICS and five more countries that share the positions of BRICS, while the G7 and its supporters are on the other side of the barricades. This is a serious balance. The G20 may deteriorate if the West uses it for fanning up confrontation. The structures I mentioned (SCO, BRICS, ASEAN, EAEU and CIS) rely on consensus, mutual respect and a balance of interests, rather than a demand to accept unipolar world realities.

Question: Naturally, it is necessary to stick together during such a global confrontation, and not only for Belarus and Russia, but as you said, for all Eurasia. But at this point, unity is facing an obvious problem. President Vladimir Putin spoke about this at the recent CSTO summit. We are seeing that American generals still visit post-Soviet countries. Sometimes, voting in international organisations is problematic. Official statements with a consolidated agenda are rare. Do you think that now post-Soviet countries are helping the West shatter these once-strong ties?

Sergey Lavrov: We spoke about this at the recent session of the CSTO Council of Foreign Ministers in Yerevan. Foreign Minister of Belarus Vladimir Makei and I made opening remarks in the same vein. We emphasised the need to maintain allied commitments and relations. Departure from a common position by any country is unthinkable in NATO. Now Turkey is trying to gain respect for its interests in connection with the accession of Sweden and Finland. This is a very rare exception, even more so since the Turks have explained very clearly what they want. They consider several organisations that have found refuge in Finland and Sweden to be terrorist organisations. Turkey explained that it wants this problem to be addressed. As for voting on different issues in the UN or elsewhere, all NATO members raise their hands in solidarity. We know that those in doubt experience awful pressure. This applies to our allies as well.

We don't use the rod of discipline in the CSTO. We are always striving to find a balance of interests. Having lost all decency, the West is against the observance of the UN Charter principle on respect of the sovereign equality of states, in accordance with which we set forth our position together with Belarus and our other allies. The West also explained its position. Let the developing nations compare and analyse these positions and make their own decisions on the problems emerging between the West and us. However, the West does not want to allow them to make their own decisions. It is sending emissaries there, twisting arms and subjecting their leaders to direct blackmail and ultimatums by exploiting their financial status and even naming schools where their children study. I know this perfectly well. That said, I cannot even imagine something similar happening in our relations in the CSTO. There are politicians under this influence in different countries. We must continue the conversations started at the CSTO meeting in Moscow, which were supported by the CSTO foreign ministers in Yerevan. We are allies and friends. We must honestly discuss all issues we are going to resolve together. As Bulat Okudzhava used to sing: "Let's join hands, my friends, lest we get lost one by one." This is great wisdom. I am sure that all our neighbours understand this very well.

Question: Let's end the discussion about unity on a positive note. In this regard, Belarus and Russia compare favourably with the Eurasian space, among others, with their regular meetings, including between the two presidents, and invariably clear mutual understanding on all matters. We are talking in the run-up to the 30th anniversary of diplomatic relations. We've come a long way. There were different periods not without disputes and disagreements. We always managed to find solutions. How do you assess the level of diplomatic relations today, including future aspects of integration?

Sergey Lavrov: It's just mutual respect and mutual striving despite subtle differences (there is never such a thing as 100-percent overlapping positions on all matters in relations between any two countries) in approaches. I see our presidents set an example of honest discussion on all issues, finding solutions based on respect for the interests of the partner, ally and on promoting their priorities, i. e. the search for that very balance of interests that makes agreements sustainable and promising.

There are 28 allied programmes underway that have been coordinated within the logic that I'm talking about. We spent a little more time, but we got reliable solutions that are now being acted upon at a fairly fast pace. We are allies. Our alliance extends to all spheres of life and activities, from military-political security, which we jointly provide on the western flank of the CSTO with Belarus playing a key role, to economic cooperation. The main thing is to create a level field for the companies from our two countries and social conditions for the citizens of Russia and Belarus. This is a critically important matter that makes it possible for Belarusians to feel at home in Russia and for Russians to feel at home in Belarus.

Briefing by Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Maria Zakharova, Moscow 22, 2022 (Брифинг официального представителя МИД России М. Захаровой, г. Москва 22 декабря 2022 г.) / Russia, June, 2022
Keywords: mofa, quotation

Question: China released its first comprehensive Global Development Report ahead of the BRICS Summit. It discusses, in particular, the rise of emerging economies and developing countries in the years to come, the shifting global economic balance and the fact that the realignment of the global governance model is gaining momentum. This could serve as a new development driver for developing and emerging economies and give them a new voice on the international arena. What is your overall assessment of this report? What could be the role of BRICS in reshaping global governance?

Maria Zakharova: I would like to draw your attention to the fact that Deputy Foreign Minister Sergey Ryabkov talked at length on this topic in his June 21, 2022, interview with your corporation.

I can now repeat that BRICS is a group of five leading countries in their respective regions. This by itself demonstrates that they have a lot of potential when it comes to shaping the international agenda. In fact, facilitating the emergence of a more democratic and representative global governance framework was the objective that led to the creation of this format, which included giving developing countries a stronger voice on key international issues. Today, the BRICS countries consistently champion collective approaches to resolving the key present-day challenges, and act as custodians of genuine multilateralism – we were the ones who coined this term – rooted in international law, and respecting the interests and sovereign choices states make as they choose a development path for themselves.

Our countries have a total population of over 3 billion people, or roughly 42 percent of the world's population, while covering about 30 percent of the land surface. The five BRICS nations have substantial natural resources, and their global economic role is increasing all the time. According to the IMF, the GDP in purchasing power standards could have reached $45.5 trillion as of the end of 2021, leaving the G7 countries behind. These figures are an eloquent illustration of the global role the BRICS nations play.

The five BRICS countries must emerge as one of the pillars of the new world order. They can play a leading role in working out solutions to challenges and threats the world is facing today, such as terrorism and transnational crime, including the use of new technology, the growing number of conflicts, climate change, etc.

BRICS is already equipped with a branched cooperation architecture. Let me mention the New Development Bank, whose lending portfolio has already exceeded $29 billion. The process to expand NDB's membership is underway, which demonstrates the global role this mechanism plays. In particular, decisions to grant NDB membership to Bangladesh, the UAE, Uruguay and Egypt have been taken. We are discussing ways to give national currencies a bigger place in our settlements and creating effective payment mechanisms.

BRICS is open to the world and is ready to take into consideration the interests of a wide range of countries, primarily in the developing world. It is committed to further strengthening dialogue with its external partners, including within its outreach and BRICS+ mechanisms. It is in this format the foreign ministers met recently (May 19, 2022, via videoconference). On June 24, 2022, the High-Level Dialogue is scheduled to take place as part of the BRICS Summit, bringing together leaders from several developing countries. We are looking forward to building a system that would offer more justice, while distancing itself from the neo-colonial paradigm of inequality and double standards.

It is with great interest that we read the Global Development Report released by the Chinese Centre for International Knowledge on Development, and hold a positive view of its contents, as well as Beijing's efforts to facilitate the implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In today's turbulent international environment, we can only welcome initiatives aimed at stimulating and deepening integration processes instead of imposing artificial restrictions and fragmenting the international economic space.

We stand ready to step up coordination with our Chinese partners in this sphere at various international platforms, including the UN and BRICS.

World of Work
BRICS creating early warning system for epidemic risks (БРИКС создает систему раннего предупреждения об эпидемических рисках) / Greece, June, 2022
Keywords: social_issues, concluded_agreements

In their final declaration, leaders of the BRICS group (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) at the end of their 14th summit hosted by China, have emphasized their commitment the need for creating complex early warning system for epidemic risks within the group, and underscored that the member states must be better prepared for future healthcare emergencies.

The group also advocated "equitable distribution of vaccines" and called on international agencies and charities to purchase vaccines and boosters "from manufacturers in developing countries, including in Africa, to ensure that the manufacturing capabilities being developed are retained."

Russia has been advocating for closer collaboration among the members, but China seems to be the fastest in taking actions concerning health related matters. Under the leadership of Russia, it first proposed cooperation on countering infectious diseases as a priority for BRICS. The final joint declaration of the 2015 BRICS summit in Ufa, Russia, has instructions by the leaders to work consistently on managing the risk of disease outbreaks.

"We are concerned about growing and diversifying global threats posed by communicable and non-communicable diseases. It has a negative impact on economic and social development, especially in developing and in the least developed countries," said the 2015 BRICS declaration.

Among the group, China and India were ready to step up the sharing of information, and experience with BRICS countries and conduct joint research and development of drugs and vaccines based on respecting each other's sovereignty and national conditions.

During the rotating chairmanship of South Africa, it firmly re-proposed the creating of full-scale coordinating research and development center and planned to be located in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Nevertheless, there has not been any practical achievements in that direction. Then Covid-19 began in December 2019 and was declared pandemic the following year by the World Health Organization (WHO). As China took the helm of BRICS, effective from January 2022, experts and research analysts have since showed deep interests and were further discussing possibilities of multilateral cooperation, existing challenges and identifying diverse priorities, the strength and weaknesses of BRICS.

With noticeable efforts, BRICS has consistently been pushing for diverse health initiatives, most especially vaccines, to halt the coronavirus pandemic that has shattered the global economy. There are Chinese and Russian vaccines, both reported as effective and safe, and currently getting ready to ramp up large-scale production.

March 22 marked the launch the BRICS Vaccine Research and Development Centre, involving the heads of relevant agencies from the five countries. The initiative to establish the BRICS Vaccine R&D Center was incorporated in the final declaration of the BRICS summit in Johannesburg, South Africa (July 26-27, 2018).

The main objective is to share best practices and strengthen practical cooperation in research, development, production and distribution of vaccines to ensure their greater availability. The new format is designed to develop mechanisms for the prevention, diagnosis and prompt response to new viruses, as well as to ensure timely and widespread Covid-19 vaccination.

The launch of the BRICS Vaccine R&D Center is considered as a major achievement of the five-sided cooperation, in strengthening cooperation in the field of healthcare in particular through the implementation of the Russian initiative to establish the BRICS Integrated Early Warning System for preventing mass infectious disease risks, in the Chinese chairmanship of the BRICS.

China's Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Wang Wenbin explained, during his regular media briefing on March 23, that the BRICS Vaccine R&D Center and workshop on vaccine cooperation would be a network of internet-based virtual centers, and the establishment of physical centers would only begin later after comprehensive feasibility assessment.

As the BRICS Chair this year, China hosted the 14th BRICS Summit in June under the theme of "Foster High-quality BRICS Partnership, Usher in a New Era for Global Development" and public health and vaccine cooperation are among the key areas of BRICS cooperation this year. At present, the pandemic is still dragging on across the world.

The establishment of the BRICS Vaccine R&D Center demonstrates the determination of BRICS countries to focus on vaccine cooperation, deepen public health cooperation and build a BRICS line of defense against Covid-19.

"We hope that the vaccine R&D center will pool the strengths of BRICS countries, further promote scientific and technological cooperation among BRICS countries, enhance the five countries' capability of preventing and controlling infectious diseases contribute to the global fight against Covid-19 and make new contributions to international public health cooperation," Wang Wenbin explained during the media briefing.

The BRICS countries are making efforts to contribute to an enhanced international cooperation to support the efforts of countries to achieve the health goals, including the implementation of universal and equitable access to health services, and ensure affordable, good-quality service delivery while taking into account different national circumstances, policies, priorities and capabilities.

The BRICS member countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) collectively represent about 26% of the world's geographic area and are home to 3.6 billion people, about 40% of the world's population and a combined nominal Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of US$16.6 trillion.

The First BRICS Energy Cooperation Forum was Held in Beijing (В Пекине прошел первый Форум энергетического сотрудничества БРИКС) / China, June, 2022
Keywords: energy, cooperation

With the theme of "Deepening BRICS Energy Cooperation for Green Transition and Development", China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and the Division of Energy and Mining Engineering of Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE) hosted the First BRICS Energy Cooperation Forum during which an initiative was released.On the eve of the opening of 2022 BRICS Business Forum, the First BRICS Energy Cooperation Forum, co-hosted by CNPC, a member of the BRICS Business Council China Chapter, and the Division of Energy and Mining Engineering of CAE, was held in Beijing on June 21st.

Aiming at serving BRICS and embracing the world through business cooperation, and themed with "Deepening BRICS Energy Cooperation for Green Transition and Development", the Forum was divided into three parts: Opening Session, Release of Initiative, and Dialogue Sessions.

Dai Houliang, member of BRICS Business Council China Chapter & Chairman of CNPC, Chen Siqing, Chair of BRICS Business Council China Chapter & Chairman of Industrial and Commercial Bank of China and Zhou Shouwei, Director of Division of Energy and Mining Engineering of CAE, delivered welcome remarks at the opening session. A total of 71 guests attended the forum, including representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CAE, working groups of BRICS Business Council, energy companies of BRICS countries, diplomatic envoys to China, and international organizations and universities.

Dai Houliang expressed that the BRICS countries, as representatives of emerging markets and developing countries, have been given much attention and expectation in participating in global governance and stabilizing global energy market. BRICS countries, covering both major energy producers and consumers, play a pivotal role in global energy governance. In recent years, the scale of bilateral energy trade among BRICS countries has been expanding and collaboration on energy projects has been deepening, laying a solid foundation for further cooperation. To build the "Energy BRICS" and shoulder the responsibility as the Energy and Green Economy Working Group of BRICS Business Council China Chapter, CNPC will strengthen cooperation with energy companies of BRICS countries to promote development and innovation for win-win achievement.

First, translating BRICS energy cooperation into tangible benefits with efforts being made to research on relevant policy systems, infrastructure facilities and fundamental theories for promoting transformation and application of technological achievement.

Second, pushing forward co-construction and sharing of BRICS energy information platform with priorities being given to enhancing the exchange and sharing of energy policies, information, cases, and cooperation projects for exploring energy cooperation opportunities.

Third, making efforts to improve opening-up and multilateral collaboration in the energy sector among BRICS countries to deepen all-around and multi-layer cooperation, and jointly participating in global energy governance to form a multi-party cooperation environment for development integration and benefit-sharing.

Fourth, working to convene BRICS Energy Cooperation Forum annually in a bid to consolidate the BRICS cooperation mechanism through communication and exchanges, expand the market and strengthen the momentum for development.

Chen Siqing pointed out that the BRICS Business Council attached great importance to energy cooperation, and highly recognized and placed great expectations on the work of the Green Economy Working Group. The Council would actively respond to the Initiative and provide high-quality energy financial services, he added.

Zhou Shouwei said that CAE would fully leverage the multidisciplinary, cross-domain and inter-industry expertise of its academicians, take CNPC as the bridge to strengthen partnership with the Energy and Green Economy Working Group of BRICS Business Council, further promote the progress of energy technology through cooperation and innovation, and contribute wisdom and strength to energy security as well as economic and social development of the BRICS countries.

Heads of Working Groups of Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa Chapters of the BRICS Business Council congratulated on the successful convening of the forum via videos. Citing Brazil's power grid layout planning as an example, the head of Brazil Group pointed out the significance of regional integrated development in the fields of energy and green economy. The head of Russia Group stressed that partnership was an effective way to solve the global energy supply crisis. The head of India Group discussed the roadmap to achieve the goals of energy equality and net-zero emissions. And the head of the South Africa Group reiterated that it was necessary to make use of the BRICS countries' energy resources and technological advantages to contribute to the sustainable development of energy.

At the forum, Dou Lirong, head of Energy and Green Economy Working Group of BRICS Business Council China Chapter & Executive Vice President of Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, CNPC, released the Contributing Energy to BRICS Sustainable Development in the Post-Pandemic Era Initiative. Published in four languages of Chinese, English, Russian and Portuguese, the Initiative advocated ten actions from four aspects, including maintaining energy market stability, energy poverty alleviation, cooperation across energy industrial chain, and promoting the achievement of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions. All parties agreed that energy companies should work shoulder to shoulder to implement the consensus reached at the BRICS summit, contribute to promoting the "2030 Sustainable Development Goals" and the Nationally Determined Contributions agreed in the Paris Agreement, and help BRICS countries achieve high-quality development in the post-pandemic era. The release of this Initiative enriched BRICS' "China Year" results and marked a new milestone for BRICS cooperation in energy.

At the forum, CNPC Economics & Technology Research Institute was invited to make a keynote speech entitled "Energy Cooperation among BRICS: Present and Future", in which the prospects and challenges of BRICS energy cooperation under the current situation were discussed. Suggestions on strengthening energy cooperation in areas of establishing energy producer and consumer alliance, trade settlement, technological cooperation, optimizing industrial chain, building the energy information platform, and strengthening think tank exchanges were put forward in the speech. 13 guests including representatives from five-member-state chapters of BRICS Business Council, academicians of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE), and representatives of energy companies, international organizations and universities were invited for the two dialogue sessions around Taking the Pulse of Energy Development for a Shared Green Future and Blueprint of Cooperation for Win-win Development respectively. They were full of confidence in the prospects of energy and green economic cooperation among BRICS countries and put forward many constructive suggestions for further strengthening of BRICS energy cooperation.

As the main strategic economic force in their respective regions, the BRICS countries account for more than one-third of the world's energy production and consumption which shares are increasing year-on-year. Energy cooperation is an important part of BRICS economic and trade cooperation. Taking this forum as a new starting point, the Energy and Green Economy Working Group of BRICS Business Council will work hand in hand with BRICS partners, focus on the common interest of emerging markets and developing countries, promote BRICS energy cooperation to achieve fruitful results, inject new momentum to global energy sustainable development, and contribute to the BRICS' "China Year" with tangible results.

The forum was live-streamed in three languages of Chinese, English and Russian, attracting 1373 experts and scholars at home and abroad to watch online.
Made on