Information Bulletin of the BRICS Trade Union Forum
Issue 48.2018
2018.11.26 — 2018.12.02
International relations
Foreign policy in the context of BRICS
Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov's remarks at the opening ceremony of the 10th International Forum of NGOs in Official Partnership with UNESCO, "Science as common good of humankind," Moscow, November 26, 2018 (Выступление Министра иностранных дел России С.В.Лаврова на церемонии открытия X Международного научного форума неправительственных партнеров ЮНЕСКО «Наука и устойчивое развитие человечества», Москва, 26 ноября 2018 года) / Russia, November, 2018
Keywords: mofa, speech, sergey_lavrov

Mr Sergeyev,



Ladies and Gentlemen,

We are meeting on a very important occasion. I am grateful to the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Peace Foundation for inviting me to speak at the 10th International Forum of NGOs in Official Partnership with UNESCO.

Amid the current situation on the international arena, your meetings contribute to the promotion of a positive, unifying agenda, and the search for answers to the numerous challenges of our time, as RAS President Alexander Sergeyev has explicated in his presentation. And ultimately, they strengthen the atmosphere of trust and mutual understanding between nations.

The relevance of today's theme is hard to overestimate. It is "Science as common good of humankind." The world is now going through a phase of rapid change; it needs the efforts of all those who are interested in ensuring sustained and stable development, including, of course, representatives from the academic community and the general public, more than ever.

The term "science diplomacy," already used here today, is becoming not just a figure of speech, but a very popular form of promoting ideas on which the development of all humankind depends.

It is clear that UNESCO is an important contributor to resolving the problems we all face, and the most important humanitarian pillar of modern architecture, capable of effectively mobilising international research potential for the benefit of all states without exception. This especially applies to cyberspace, artificial intelligence, genetics, and many other areas where there are real risks of discoveries put to other than peaceful uses.

We appreciate the fact that you came to Moscow for the 10th International Forum of NGOs for science in official partnership with UNESCO. We see this as recognition of Russia's significant role in achieving sustainable development goals. Our country will continue to actively participate in the world community's efforts, including through the UN, the G20, BRICS, the SCO, UNESCO and other multilateral platforms.

We are pleased to welcome UNESCO Deputy Director-General Xing Qu, who will take part in your work.

As always, we firmly adhere to the assumption that the prosperous future of humankind is inseparably linked with building a more equitable and democratic polycentric system of global governance. Only in this way can we ensure equal and indivisible security for everyone in international relations without exception. We will continue to maintain a regular mutually enriching dialogue with the research and expert communities, as well as with other representatives of civil society. We will also encourage the undertakings of science and public diplomacy as much as possible.


I am convinced that the upcoming discussions will be constructive, open, and friendly, and will contribute to the advancement of promising initiatives aimed at building up broad humanitarian and scientific cooperation for the benefit of the citizens of all our countries. We can't wait to hear these ideas and are ready to study and develop them for use, now in official diplomacy.

I would like to wish you productive work, successful creative activity, and may all your plans be realised.

Russia, Indian, Chinese top diplomats to prepare initiatives to boost dialogue - Lavrov (Ведущие дипломаты из России, Индии и Китая готовятся к инициативам по активизации диалога - Лавров) / Russia, December, 2018
Keywords: g20, quotation, sergey_lavrov

PETROPAVLOVSK-KAMCHATSKY, December 2. /TASS/. Tops diplomats from Russia, India and China will work out initiatives to strengthen trilateral cooperation, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said on Sunday.

At a meeting with the Chinese and Indian leaders, Xi Jinping and Narendra Modi, on the sidelines of the Group of Twenty summit in Buenos Aires, Russian President Vladimir Putin came up with an initiative to convene regular meetings in the trilateral, the so-called RIC (Russia, India, China), format on the margins of international event and big summits.

"The leaders agreed to continue top-level meetings and issued instructions to their countries' foreign ministers to elaborate proposals for the RIC leaders on how to make this cooperation more efficient and expand it to new areas," Lavrov said in an interview with the Moscow. Kremlin. Putin program on the Rossiya 1television channel.

"What unites our nations was underscored at the meeting in the RIC format [in Buenos Aires]. First of all, it is striving to prevent disintegration of universal structures that are functioning on the basis of the United Nations Charter and its principles, such as equality, respect to sovereignty, non-interference into domestic affairs," Lavrov noted. "In general, the leaders voiced their commitment to defend the basics of the multi-lateral, open economic and trade system. Indian Prime Minister Modi spoke resolutely against the sanctions the United States is using in this sphere seeking to boost competitiveness and get unfair competitive advantages".

Lavrov added that Russia, India and China have become allies in international formats.

"All the BRICS nations were co-authors of the statement that slams such illegitimate actions and insists that all the states duly respect both the convention and their own liabilities under it," he said in an interview.

"I mentioned BRICS because Russian President Vladimir Putin, Chinese President Xi Jinping and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi said that our three countries are a driving force of such formats as BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) now that India has joined it," he said. The fact that we are linked geographically, politically and share view on key problems of the world order and that we are interested in settling all disputes peacefully, interested in a free, open and fair trade-and-economic system, it makes us allies on these matters."

The Russian top diplomat noted that although India is not a permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, it has been elected its non-permanent member more than once. "And in the overwhelming majority of cases, we have common positions. I would like to draw attention to the fact that our countries have consolidated positions during voting on most important issues not only in the Security Council but generally in the United Nations," he stressed.
Xi calls on BRICS to jointly safeguard stability of world economy (Си призывает БРИКС совместно защищать стабильность мировой экономики) / China, November, 2018
Keywords: g20, xi_jinping, economic_challenges

The five BRICS countries, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, should work together to steer global governance onto the right path and safeguard the stability, development and prosperity of world economy, Chinese President Xi Jinping said.

Xi made the remarks on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Buenos Aires on Friday.

Leaders of the other BRICS nations -- Brazilian President Michel Temer, Russian President Vladimir Putin, President of South Africa Cyril Maraphosa and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, attended the meeting.

Xi said leaders of the BRICS reached fruitful consensuses in Johannesburg in July this year and under current circumstances, the multilateral trade system is under attack and the common interests of the international community have been damaged.

The Chinese president urged firm support for multilateralism.

"We need to strengthen multilateralism and the rules-based international order within the G20, UN, IMF and other international institutions, opposing protectionism and unilateralism," he said.

Xi added that the BRICS should improve global economic governance continuously and the core values and basic principles of the WTO should be upheld.

The special and differential treatment that developing countries enjoy should be guaranteed.

"We need to continue to advance reform of international monetary and financial institutions and promote greater representation and voice of emerging market and developing countries in global economic governance," he said.

BRICS countries should continue to strive for the common development of different countries, motivate emerging economies and developing nations to prioritize the issue of development, and implement the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in a comprehensive way, he noted.

"We should adhere to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), pushing for relevant parties to finish the negotiation on the operating manual of the Paris Climate Agreement as scheduled," Xi said, adding that developed countries should deliver on their promises to support developing countries with finance, technology and capacity building.

Xi said BRICS countries should accelerate the forging of a partnership in the new industrial revolution and jointly empower new economic growth.

"We should unlock the potential of the 'BRICS Plus' so that the cooperation among BRICS countries will benefit other emerging economies and developing nations," he added.

President Xi stressed that BRICS countries are all important members of the G20, and should work together in supporting Argentina to hold the 13th G20 summit.

Brazil will take over the chairmanship of BRICS countries and China will fully support the country's work next year and deepen strategic partnership with other BRICS countries, he added.

The five leaders of BRICS countries said the world politics, economy and trade are facing severe challenges, and unilateralism and protectionism are worrisome trends.

The leaders also called on BRICS countries to promote practical cooperation in economy, trade, energy, science and technology, finance, humanities and health, jointly opposing trade protectionism and unilateralism.

BRICS countries should strengthen cooperation with African countries and other nations in the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and jointly safeguard the interests of emerging markets and developing countries, the leaders stressed.

A joint press communique was issued after the meeting.

BRICS pushes back against US unilateralism at G20 (БРИКС отталкивает США от односторонности в G20) / South Africa, December, 2018
Keywords: g20, top_level_meeting, political_issues
South Africa

As the consequential G20 meeting concluded in Argentina on Saturday, the deep schisms in international relations on everything from climate change to trade wars were on full display. The consensus which the G20 was able to reach on these pivotal issues at its meeting last November was disrupted by the Trump factor.

"The world is undergoing a difficult moment as Trump pursues a vision at odds with the idea of collective action on trade and climate change," EU President Donald Tusk said at the G20. The US stance on trade and climate change already saw the G7 Summit and the Asia-Pacific Economic Forum end without routine statements. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said in Buenos Aires that this is "a make it or break it moment" for climate change. A major UN meeting on climate change starts in Poland on the heels of the G20.

Last week Brazil withdrew its offer to host the 2019 UN conference on climate change, which is the strongest indication yet that newly elected right-wing President Jair Bolsonaro will keep his campaign promise to pull Brazil out of the Paris Accord on climate change. Bolsonaro had shocked environmentalists when he declared his intention to open the Amazon for greater development.

The BRICS leaders met for the first time since Bolsonaro's election on the sidelines of the G20, and issued a statement saying, "We recommit ourselves to the full implementation of the Paris Agreement," leaving Bolsonaro's statements on climate change at odds with those of the BRICS collective.

The BRICS leaders went further by pushing back against Trump's unilateralist approach and protectionism, saying, "We reaffirm our full support for the rules-based multilateral trading system, as embodied in the WTO, to ensure transparent, non-discriminatory, open and inclusive international trade. The spirit and rules of the WTO run counter to unilateral and protectionist measures."

Experts claimed that the future of global trade would hinge on the much-anticipated dinner meeting between President Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping last night, at which US trade advisor Peter Navarro was also present. Both sides had been optimistic that a compromise deal could be reached in the wake of the US imposing tariffs on US$250 billion of Chinese goods, and China retaliating by imposing tariffs on US$110 billion of US products.

Trump cancelled his meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin at the G20 in protest over Russia's seizure of Ukrainian naval boats last week, with Putin hitting back at the G20 meeting by condemning the "vicious use of sanctions and trade protectionism."

Putin's warm and overly-enthusiastic greeting for Saudi Arabia's Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) shocked onlookers and was roundly criticised on social media and in the international press. Putin had greeted MBS with a high five on Friday morning as they sat next to each other at the G20 meeting. MBS was, however, sidelined during the official family photo of G20 leaders and cut a lonely figure.

French President Emmanuel Macron reportedly delivered a strong message to MBS on Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi's brutal killing, and British Prime Minister Theresa May raised the issue of Khashoggi's murder during her meeting with the 33-year-old Prince, and "stressed the importance of ensuring that those responsible for the murder are held to account.". The Europeans are insisting that international experts be part of the investigation into Khashoggi's killing. President Cyril Ramaphosa met with MBS on the sidelines of the G20, and is reported to have discussed issues relating to energy and investment in South Africa.

Ramaphosa was accompanied at the G20 by the Minister for International Relations and Cooperation Lindiwe Sisulu and Minister of Finance Tito Mboweni.
Brazil to host next BRICS summit in 2019 (Бразилия проведет очередной саммит БРИКС в 2019 году) / Russia, November, 2018
Keywords: top_level_meeting, concluded_agreements, summit

BUENOS AIRES, November 30. /TASS/. The leaders of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) nations have agreed to hold their next summit in Brazil in 2019, according to the statement passed after their informal meeting on the sidelines of the Group of Twenty summit in Buenos Aires on Friday.

"We look forward to the 11th BRICS Summit to be hosted by Brazil in 2019 and extend our full support to Brazil as the incoming BRICS Chair," the statement says.

Russian President Vladimir Putin arrived in Buenos Aires earlier in the day to attend the Group of Twenty summit. Before that, he held an informal meeting with his BRICS counterparts.
Transcription of Sound-bite by Foreign Secretary on BRICS and India-China Bilateral Meeting (Транскрипция звукового фрагмента из речи министра иностранных дел по поводу БРИКС и двустороннего совещания между Индией и Китаем) / India, November, 2018
Keywords: political_issues

Foreign Secretary, Shri Vijay Gokhale: Prime Minister had two important engagements this morning prior to the start of the G20 Summit. First was the meeting of the BRICS Heads of State and Government. During this meeting all the five leaders made important statements and there was a complete unanimity of views, both on the international political situation and on the international economic situation. They all agreed that international and multilateral training institutions and processes must be supported, they must be reformed, there must be an avoidance of unilateralism, that protectionism needs to be countered and that the BRICS countries have a major contribution to make in all these processes.

In particular Prime Minister made a couple of important points. Firstly, he spoke of the need of reforms of multilateral institutions including the United Nations and its Security Council and in that regard he said that all countries should speak with a single voice.

Secondly, the Prime Minister said that as beneficiaries of global growth India as well as other BRICS countries should make whatever contributions they could to shore up the global trading and financial system and to bring reforms into it so that emerging economies could get a voice.

Prime Minister also highlighted the issue of economic offenders and the need to bring them to justice and here Prime Minister received support from the other BRICS leaders.

Finally, the Prime Minister also said that important multilateral institutions like FATF and other such institutions must be strengthened so that financing for terror and other illegal activities are curbed.

All in all the meetings of BRICS was very successful and it reflected India's position in terms of unanimity of views of all countries on such issues.

Immediately after this BRICS meeting Prime Minister had a meeting with President Xi Jinping of China. This is the fourth meeting this year and both leaders made a particular point of saying that during these four meetings and the follow up to the Wuhan informal summit there had been a perceptible improvement in bilateral relations.

Both of them had a very detailed review of what they had agreed to in Wuhan and how it was progressed and both of them said that the progress has been made on the economic side. President Xi Jinping referred to enhanced imports of rice and sugar from India, spoke of possibility of greater import of soyameal and rapeseed. He also expressed the hope that India would import more agricultural products from China and he gave an indication that in the pharmaceutical sector there would be greater trade between the two.

On the political side both sides welcomed the visit of the Chinese Defense Minister, of the holding of the counter-terrorism military exercise next week in India and the recently concluded Special Representative talks and both leaders that there had been a positive improvement in border management along the India-China border areas following the Wuhan summit.

Both leaders also said that they were looking forward to the first meeting of the high level mechanism on people-to-people exchanges which will take place in New Delhi in third week of December when Foreign Minister Wong Yi of China travels and External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj will host him.

Finally, both sides also specifically mentioned that the first bilateral cooperation that had begun in Afghanistan which is the training of Afghan Diplomats, had been successful and that they were looking for further such opportunities.

Prime Minister appreciated and conveyed this appreciation to President Xi Jinping of the very prompt information that the Chinese side has shared with the Indian side in the month of October when there was a blockage in the flow of the Brahmaputra river due to a landslide and Xi Jinping in turn said that China is ready and willing to do more to cooperate on exchange of hydrological information.

Finally both leaders felt that as a result of the Wuhan Summit and the meetings taking place after that, strategic communication had been enhanced between them, trust had been built between them. There was a personal relationship and both sides were optimistic that 2018 was a good year but 2019 would be an even better year.

So all in all, I think, it was a very successful bilateral meeting between the two leaders and it reflects a new confidence and a new stability in India-China relations.

Thank you.
Translation of PM's speech at BRICS Leaders' Informal Meeting on the margins of G20 Summit (Перевод речи премьер-министра на неофициальном совещании лидеров БРИКС в кулуарах саммита G20) / India, November, 2018
Keywords: g20, speech, top_level_meeting, narendra_modi

Your Excellency President Cyril Ramaphosa,
Your Excellency President Michel Temer,
Your Excellency President Vladimir Putin,
Your Excellency President Xi Jinping,

I congratulate President Ramaphosa on the success of BRICS Summit in Johannesburg in July and hosting this meeting.

In BRICS we represent 42% of the world's population. Since last few years BRICS has been the engine of Global Growth. However, there are still many possibilities of increasing our share in world GDP (23%) and trade (16%). They are not in line with our population.


Globalization has brought millions of people out of poverty. However, we have challenges of equal distribution of benefits of globalization before us. There has been a streak of continuous difficulties in the path of multilateralism and rule-based world order and protectionism is increasing. Currency devaluation and sharp increase in oil prices are challenging the profits earned over the past few years.

BRICS countries have been contributing to global sustainability and development. We have played an important role in shaping the economic and political structure of the world.

We have made significant contributions in making the architecture of global economic governance more representative and democratic and we will continue to work further in this direction.

We must speak unanimously about providing more representation to the developing countries in United Nations, its Security Council and other multilateral institutions. This is the purpose for which we have come together in the BRICS.

To ensure a rule-based world order we have to work together with multilateral institutions like UN, WTO, UNFCC, World Bank, so as to maintain their relevance and they also reflect the realities of current time. In this regard, I have suggested 'Reformed Multilateralism' in my meeting in Johannesburg.

Inclusion of topics like the New Industrial Revolution, future of work, etc. in the G20 agenda has enriched the discussion of global development. We, BRICS countries, are eager to cooperate in the new Industrial Revolution.

In this context, the topics of globalization and migration must be addressed through better multilateral coordination and cooperation. Managing labor issues in the Global Supply Chain will be necessary to ensure excellent work in the entire value chain. Portability of social security schemes of workers and smooth movement of laborers worldwide is very important.

Social-economic issues like women's empowerment and sustainable food future will be raised in the G20 Summit. On sustainable development and infrastructure, earlier I had suggested the need for disaster resilient infrastructure. We have to work together to take it forward.


India values and appreciates the progress made in enhancing BRICS political exchanges. In this regard, meetings between our Foreign Ministers, NSAs and special messengers from Middle East have made important contributions.

We all agree that terrorism and radicalization are the biggest threats that the whole world is facing today. It is not only a threat to the peace and security, it is also a threat to economic development.

We have urged all countries for the implementation of FATF standards. BRICS and G20 countries have to work together to strengthen the UN Counter Terrorism Framework to stop terrorist networks, their financing and their movement.

We need to work together against economic offenders and fugitives. This problem can be a serious threat to the world's economic stability.


Our support base in the G20 has started to become strong. Our BRICS Sherpas have been consulting and cooperating in G20 areas.

G20 Summit is being headed by a developing country. It is a good opportunity that the focus of the G20 agenda and its results should be brought to the priorities of the developing countries.

In the end, once again I thank President Ramaphosa for the successful hosting of the Johannesburg Summit and for organizing this meeting.

I also confirm full support and cooperation of India to Brazil and its leadership for the forthcoming BRICS Chairmanship. I am confident that BRICS cooperation will scale new heights under the Chairmanship of Brazil.


I also thank President of Brazil that we have been getting your guidance and an opportunity to work with you since the last six times and as you said, this is our last meeting with you.

My best wishes,
Thanks a lot
Buenos Aires
November 30, 2018

Disclaimer: PM's speech was delivered in Hindi. This is an approximate translation of Speech.
Opening Remarks by President Cyril Ramaphosa at BRICS Leaders' Summit, Buenos Aires, Argentina (Вступительное слово президента Cирилла Рамафозы на саммите лидеров БРИКС, Буэнос-Айрес, Аргентина) / South Africa, November, 2018
Keywords: g20, top_level_meeting, cyril_ramaphosa, speech
South Africa

Your Excellency President Temer,
Your Excellency President Putin,
Your Excellency Prime Minister Modi,
Your Excellency President Xi,
Distinguished Guests,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is my honour to once again have the opportunity to meet with you on the margins of the 2018 G20 Leaders' Summit to coordinate our common positions in the international arena and to build further on the discussions that we had during the 10th BRICS Summit in Johannesburg in July.

The Johannesburg Declaration that we adopted in July is a culmination of the more than ten years of successful BRICS cooperation.

Importantly, this cooperation has steadily become more practically oriented.

Through various mechanisms, working groups and constructive dialogue, we are pooling our resources and capabilities towards developing and implementing practical solutions to many contemporary challenges.

One of these challenges is in the area of peace and security.

We should, as a collective, be at the forefront of solution-seeking interventions and move towards more pro-active approaches to maintaining peace and security.

In this regard, more needs to be done to address the conflicts that persist in the Middle East and Africa, and the resulting humanitarian crises, abuses of human rights and social and economic disruption.

As we have consistently reiterated, multilateral efforts should be supported as the primary approach to deal with terrorism and conflict.

The United Nations should be the primary forum for such interventions.

On the African Continent we have seen the positive effects of cooperation between the UN and regional organisations such as the African Union.

In view of the ongoing challenges in Syria, Yemen, Palestine, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Libya, South Sudan and the Central Africa Republic, we should continue to support cooperation between the UN, the AU and others.

In the economic sphere, as we note that unilateral tendencies seem to be gaining traction, we should uphold the principles of multilateralism.

The increasingly inward-looking and bilaterally-oriented approach to trade agreements is of concern.

Coupled with the evident rise of trade protectionism, these factors are directly undermining the multilateral trading system as agreed in Marrakesh in 1994 and again in Doha in 2001.

The current challenges in global trade necessitate that we use all available policy tools, in accordance with our commitments in the multilateral trading system, to achieve the goal of sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth.

We must hold steadfast to the objective of creating a world that is conducive for sustainable development and shared prosperity, not only for our own nations, but also for the broader community of emerging markets and developing countries.

While our meeting takes place in an environment of uncertainty and growing unilateralism and protectionism, this Forum has demonstrated its capacity to make our voices heard in the international arena.

We must continue to leverage our position on the global stage as a means to continuously reaffirm our commitment to multilateralism and to a fair and just rules-based, transparent and inclusive multilateral trading system.

We reaffirm our commitment to financial cooperation and to furthering the prospect of financial integration, which will help address the development needs of BRICS countries and other emerging markets.

As we approach the G20 Leaders' Summit, South Africa stands ready to work closely with its G20 partners to ensure the implementation of G20 commitments, particularly with regards to the development aspirations of Africa and least developed countries.

Like the majority of G20 members, South Africa seeks language in the G20 Leaders' Communique that reflects a strong commitment to the Paris Climate Change Agreement and a sense of urgency for its implementation, especially around financial commitments, technology transfer and means of implementation support.

Global trade is at the core of the G20's mandate and we expect the G20 to show leadership in light of current global trade tensions.

South Africa stands ready to work together with BRICS to ensure a trade outcome that shows a strong G20 commitment to a multilateral trading system, with the World Trade Organisation as the premier body in international trade.

South Africa seeks BRICS' support for the implementation of previous commitments of the G20 to support industrialisation in Africa and least developed countries as agreed in 2016 at the Hangzhou Summit.

We seek support for the G20 Partnership with Africa, the Compact with Africa and previous commitments on support for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in Africa, among others.

South Africa seeks BRICS' support for the G20's continued prioritisation of efforts to address illicit financial flows as a developmental issue for Africa.

To this end, the G20 Hangzhou Summit in China in 2016 agreed that there should be continuous work on addressing cross-border financial flows derived from illicit activities, which hampers the mobilisation of domestic resources for development.

South Africa will continue to support further G20 consideration of the report by the World Customs Organisation on this matter and a reflection of this important issue in the Leaders' Communique.

The G20 needs to discuss growing levels of inequality within and among countries, and the widening developmental divide between the global North and South.

South Africa looks forward to working with other BRICS countries to ensure the G20 demonstrates leadership in preventing a global economic crisis.

There is therefore a need for the G20 member countries to play a role in unlocking resources needed for inclusive growth and sustainable development for all countries and peoples.

There is much that the BRICS forum – with its shared outlook and a decade of effective cooperation – can do to advance this agenda and encourage all G20 countries to play a positive and meaningful role in building a better, safer and more inclusive world.

I thank you.
Xi, Putin meet on G20 sidelines (Си и Путин встретились на полях G20) / China, November, 2018
Keywords: g20, xi_jinping, vladimir_putin, top_level_meeting

BUENOS AIRES - President Xi Jinping met with his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, here on Friday on the sidelines of the 13th Group of 20 (G20) summit.

Xi said the development of China-Russia relations enjoys strong internal dynamism and a bright prospect as it goes with the trend of the times and the aspirations of both peoples.

Hailing the new achievements in bilateral cooperation in various fields this year, Xi said China and Russia will hold grand and colorful activities to celebrate the 70th anniversary of their diplomatic relations next year and strive for more visible results in bilateral practical cooperation.

Xi stressed the important guiding role the two countries' heads of state play in advancing the bilateral relationship, suggesting that the two sides keep the tradition of annual presidential mutual visits.

China and Russia, he said, should work together to strengthen the alignment of the Belt and Road Initiative and the Eurasian Economic Union, and deepen cooperation in trade, finance, energy, technology and other sectors as well as at sub-national levels.

Xi urged the two countries to step up coordination in multilateral mechanisms including the G20 and BRICS, and unite all parties concerned in upholding multilateralism, safeguarding the core values and basic rules of the World Trade Organization, supporting trade liberalization and facilitation, and opposing protectionism and unilateralism.

Putin, for his part, said it is of great significance to maintain close high-level exchanges between the two countries.

He spoke highly of the fruitful bilateral cooperation in various fields, citing fast-growing trade, steady progress in such areas as manufacturing, high technology and agriculture, smooth implementation of large-scale projects, and effective coordination on international and regional affairs.

Russia is committed to deepening practical cooperation and coordination with China to safeguard global peace and security and build an open world economy, Putin said.

The two presidents also exchanged views on some major international and regional affairs in today's world.

Putin suggests Chinese, Indian leaders should hold regular meetings in RIC format (Путин предлагает китайскому и индийскому лидерам проводить регулярные встречи в формате РИК) / Russia, December, 2018
Keywords: top_level_meeting, vladimir_putin

BUENOS AIRES, December 1. /TASS/. At a meeting with the Chinese and Indian leaders Russian President Vladimir Putin suggested holding meetings in the Russia-India-China (RIC) format on a regular basis, in particular on the sidelines of large summits and international events.

At the beginning of the meeting Putin expressed gratitude to his colleagues for supporting Russia's initiative to hold a trilateral meeting. "I'd like to note that Russia, India and China are linked by old, century-long friendly relations which we are building based on the principles of good-neighborly relations, equality of rights and mutual confidence," the Russian state leader said. Putin reiterated that last time negotiations between the state leaders in this format were held 12 years ago. "They were really productive. One of the results was the creation of the BRICS," the Russian president said.

"We believe that the RIC format has large prospects and that cooperation in this trilateral format may become effective supplementation to cooperation which our countries carry out bilaterally and in the BRICS," the Russian president said.

Putin reported that Russia suggested organizing this meeting, as the processes that are taking place in Eurasia require the close coordination of approaches by the three countries, chiefly in the sphere of providing security and building constructive interstate relations. "It is important to establish joint work on key issues of the economic agenda, including in the Group of Twenty, jointly protect the principles of just and fair competition in the world trade and finance and support the establishment of a system of international economic relations that would be as open as possible and free of protectionism and politically motivated restrictions," Putin said.

The Russian president suggested holding meeting in this format more often. "I expect our today's conversation to be useful and that we will be able to make these meetings regular further on. In particular, they could be held on the sidelines of large summits and international events. Of course, it is important to continue trilateral coordination at other levels as well and create additional mechanisms of cooperation if need be," the Russian leader added.
BRICS leaders' meeting in Buenos Aires (Встреча лидеров БРИКС в Буэнос-Айресе) / Greece, December, 2018
Keywords: top_level_meeting, expert_opinion, political_issues
Author: Kester Kenn Klomegah

Due to efficient cooperation between the BRICS members and coordination within international organisations and forums, the strategic partnership has grown stronger and continues to actively develop in the most diverse areas, Russian leader Vladimir Putin said at a meeting with his colleagues at the G20 summit held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Putin supported much of what his colleagues have said about the difficult situation in global politics, economy, trade and finance, and noted that such risk factors as an increase in global debt, volatility of stock markets and escalating trade disputes.

"In general, we cannot help noticing that unfair competition often takes the place of fair and equitable intergovernmental dialogue. The nefarious practice of imposing unilateral sanctions and protectionist measures without regard to the UN Charter, WTO rules and other generally accepted legal norms is spreading," he stressed.

All of these seriously undermines the atmosphere of cooperation on the global stage and leads to declining business ties and loss of trust between participants of economic relations, distorting the very fabric of the global economy, Putin explained further.

The BRICS countries plan to continue working together to create a fair and equitable system of international relations. For this, collective action based on mutual respect and consideration of interests is needed in order to overcome the critical challenges facing the international community.

He noted that the danger posed by international terrorism is not subsiding and enlist the support of BRICS members in counteracting this global problem.

He suggested BRICS play a more significant role in the global financial system, push for the continuation of the IMF reform and for greater influence in the IMF.

The BRIS members pledged to get committed to sustainable development of agriculture. Russia is a large producer and exporter of agricultural produce, contributing significantly to food security. Over the last 10 years, we supplied over 650,000 tonnes of food and humanitarian aid to more than 110 countries.

It is expected that the bond and national currencies fund of the BRICS countries to become available in 2019, which would allow strengthening financial and investment stability and expanding the interaction of national payment systems.

They pledged to pay special attention to coordinating the BRICS countries' positions on issues related to energy and climate change. Russia, as a reliable exporter of energy to many countries and regions in the world, intends to continue to actively participate in harmonising global energy markets jointly with other suppliers and consumers of fuel and to provide global energy security.

A significant contribution to financial stability has been made by the new development bank, which is now supporting 26 projects in BRICS countries with US$6.5 billion in financing.

President Vladimir Putin arrived in Buenos Aires to attend the Group of Twenty summit. Before that, he held an informal meeting with his BRICS counterparts where he congratulated President of South Africa, Cyril Ramaphosa, for organising everything during his chairmanship in July 2018 and further promised similar support for President of Brazil, the new chair, for the next summit in 2019.

The leaders of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) nations have agreed to hold their next summit in Brazil in 2019, according to the statement passed after their informal meeting on the sidelines of the Group of Twenty summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Brazil-Africa Relations During Bolsonaro Presidency (Бразильско-африканские отношения во время президентства в Болсонаро) / United States, November, 2018
Keywords: expert_opinion, political_issues
United States
Author: W.Alex Sánchez

Incoming Brazilian President, Jair Bolsonaro, has been labeled by the global media as the South American version of President Donald Trump. One more reason to add to the list of resemblances between the two may be a potential disengagement with Africa once the Brazilian politician assumes the presidency in January.

How has the dream of former President Lula da Silva (2003-2011) for South-South cooperation soured? He was in power when the concept known as the BRICS was first coined by Jim O'Neill. This term evolved into an initiative in which Brazil joined the Russian Federation, India and China (South Africa joined later) to form a new bloc that would provide investment opportunities to emerging economies without some of the conditions that other donors such as the United States and the European Union often add. The leaders of these five states, including Brazilian President Michel Temer, most recently met in South Africa for their annual summit.

Alas, Bolsonaro's interest in strengthening ties with the U.S. and Europe may put in jeopardy Brazil's participation in the BRICS initiative, as well as Brasilia's engagement with Africa.

Brazil and Africa have a long history, dating back to the era of slavery. As a 2016 report by the German Marshall Fund explains, "around 11 million black Africans were forcibly brought to the American continents during the slave trade period. Brazil received approximately 4 million, making it the country with the most slaves in the world." Brazil opened embassies and consulates in various African states in the 1960s as Brasilia supported self-determination and the end of colonization.

When Lula came to power, he wanted to make Brazil a global leader, and he also encouraged South-South cooperation. At first it was the five Portuguese speaking countries (Sao Tome and Principe, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and Mozambique) that were the initial points of contact as Brasilia sought to step out onto the World State under the tenure of the Worker's Party. Lula was also a frequent visitor to Africa: a 2010 BBC article about Lula's final trip to Africa as head of state explains how he visited "27 African countries on 12 different occasions, more than all his predecessors combined." But under the term of Dilma Rousseff the government considered closing some embassies in Africa.

As for what can we expect once Bolsonaro comes to power? A 26 October article in Quartz Africa suggests that, "if little is known about Bolsonaro's views on foreign policy in relation to Africa, his running mate, General Hamilton Mourão, has been very clear. During a recent speech he criticised Lula da Silva and Dilma Rousseff's South-South diplomacy claiming that it had resulted in costly association with "dirtbag scum" countries (African) that did not yield any 'returns.'" Scholarships that help African Students travel to Brazil to study could also be in jeopardy. This is problematic, as a relatively cheap and very effective way to promote cultural ties is to have such exchanges take place at the educational level.

Nevertheless it is assumed that the military initiatives and commercial contracts between Brazil and some of its African contacts will continue. For example, in July, the Brazilian aerospace company EMBRAER and Sahara Africa Aviation"signed a multi-year Pool Program Agreement for spare parts and support covering more than 500 components for their two recently acquired Embraer ERJ 145 jets." Similarly, Denel Dynamics of South Africa and Brazil's Mectron, Avibras, and Opto Eletrônica are jointly developing the A-Darter short-range imaging infrared (IIR) air-to-air missile (AAM) system. In other words, there are valid and practical reasons for Brasilia to continue its engagement with Africa.

Moreover, there is the question of Brazilian participation in UN peace missions on the African continent, now that the UN mission in Haiti, MINUSTAH, in which Brazil had a prominent role, is over. For some time, there was the belief that the Temer presidency was going to deploy troops to the Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), a crucial but struggling mission (the authors of this commentary published an article in IPD, titled "Brazil to Join UN Mission in Central African Republic, MINUSCA," in December 2017 about that possibility) however this has yet to occur. Brazilian Air Force Colonel Alexandre Corrêa Lima has joined the international staff of the United Nations Integrated Multidimensional Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSMA, in French), arriving in early September, but no massive deployment has occurred.

There are plenty of questions about what can we expect once President Bolsonaro assumes power next year. The future of Brazil-Africa relations may not be at the top of anyone's list of Brazilian foreign policy priorities right now, but given how Brazil's history of South-South cooperation could abruptly come to an end in the near future, it should be.

W. Alex Sánchez is an analyst who focuses on international security and geopolitics. His research interests include inter-state tensions, narco-insurgent movements and drug cartels, arms sales, the development of Latin American military industries, UN peacekeeping operations, as well as the rising use of drones (UAVs) for civilian and security uses in Latin America.

Media Statement at Informal BRICS Leaders' Meeting on the Margins of the G20 Summit (Заявление для СМИ по итогам встречи лидеров БРИКС на полях саммита G20) / India, November, 2018
Keywords: g20, top_level_meeting, concluded_agreements, off_docs

  • We, the Heads of State and Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the Republic of India, the People's Republic of China and the Republic of South Africa, met on 30 November 2018 for the annual Informal BRICS Leaders' Meeting on the margins of the G20 Summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We congratulated and supported the Argentine Presidency for G20 in 2018 and expressed our gratitude at the hospitality provided.
  • We exchanged views on international political, security and global economic-financial issues, as well as challenges facing sustainable development. We recommit ourselves to a world of peace and stability, the central role of the United Nations, the purposes and principles enshrined in the UN Charter, and respect for international law, the promotion of democracy and the rule of law. We reiterate our commitment to working together to strengthen multilateralism and promote a fair, just, equitable, democratic and representative international order.
  • We deplore continued terrorist attacks, including against some BRICS countries. We condemn terrorism in all forms and manifestations, wherever committed and by whom so ever. We urge concerted efforts to counter terrorism under the UN auspices on a firm international legal basis. We call upon all nations to adopt a comprehensive approach in combating terrorism, including all the elements identified in the Johannesburg Declaration.
  • We reaffirm our full support for the rules-based multilateral trading system, as embodied in the WTO, to ensure transparent, non-discriminatory, open and inclusive international trade. We express our common readiness to engage in frank and result-oriented discussions with other WTO members with a view to improving the functioning of the WTO.
  • The spirit and rules of the WTO run counter to unilateral and protectionist measures. We call on all members to oppose such WTO inconsistent measures, stand by their commitments undertaken in the WTO and rollback such measures of a discriminatory and restrictive nature.
  • We support work towards improvement of the WTO with the view to enhance its relevance and effectiveness to address current and future challenges. In this work the core value and fundamental principles of the WTO should be preserved and interests of all WTO members should be reflected, in particular those of the developing members.
  • The dispute settlement mechanism of the WTO is essential for its proper functioning. Its effective functioning will give members the required confidence to engage in future negotiating in the WTO. We therefore urge that the Appellate Body selection process be initiated immediately, as an essential prerequisite for the stable and effective functioning of the WTO dispute settlement system.
  • We reaffirm our commitment to enhance our communication and cooperation and work jointly and collaboratively with other members to enable the WTO to keep up with the changing times, promote inclusive growth and participation of all countries in international trade and play a meaningful role in global economic governance.
  • We welcome the G20 Argentine Presidency's theme of Building Consensus for Fair and Sustainable Development and its focus on the Future of Work, Infrastructure for Development and Food Security for Sustainable Future.
  • We recognize the importance of infrastructure for development and commit to contribute to bridging the global infrastructure gap, also by mobilizing resources for sustainable and disaster resilient infrastructure through national and collective initiatives, including the New Development Bank.
  • We advocate for a strong Global Financial Safety Net with an adequately resourced, quota-based International Monetary Fund (IMF) at its centre. To this effect, we reaffirm our commitment to the conclusion of the IMF's 15th General Review of Quotas, including a new quota formula so as to ensure the increased voice of the dynamic emerging and developing economies to reflect their relative contributions to the world economy while protecting the voices of the least developed counties, by the 2019 Spring Meetings and no later than the 2019 Annual Meetings.
  • We reinforce our commitment to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals that would provide equitable, inclusive, open, all-round innovation-driven and sustainable development, in its three dimensions – economic, social and environmental - in a balanced and integrated manner, towards the ultimate goal of eradicating poverty by 2030. We urge developed countries to honour their ODA commitments fully, in time and to provide additional development resources to developing countries in accordance with the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.
  • The global economic expansion continues, however, it has been less balanced and downside risks have risen. We are concerned that the negative spill-overs by policy normalization from major advanced economies has been an important source of volatility of some emerging market economies witnessed recently. We call on all economies to strengthen their policy dialogue and coordination in the spirit of partnership at the G20 and other fora to prevent potential risks from spreading.
  • Regarding Climate Change, we recommit ourselves to the full implementation of the Paris Agreement adopted under the principles of the UNFCCC including the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and urge developed countries to provide financial, technological and capacity-building support to developing countries to enhance their capability in mitigation and adaptation. We call upon all countries to reach a balanced outcome under the Paris Agreement Work Programme during COP-24 that enables operationalization and implementation of the Paris Agreement. We stress the importance and urgency of conducting a successful and ambitious first replenishment process of the Green Climate Fund.
  • We reiterate our warm appreciation to South Africa for the success of the 10th BRICS Summit, Johannesburg, 25-27 July 2018 and recommit ourselves to enhancing further our strategic partnership for the benefit of our peoples. We express satisfaction with the achievements of BRICS cooperation in the areas of economy, peace and security and people-to-people exchanges under South Africa's Chairship, including the establishment of the BRICS Partnership on New Industrial Revolution (PartNIR), the BRICS Vaccine Research and Development Centre, the BRICS Energy Research Cooperation Platform and the Americas Regional Office of the New Development Bank in São Paulo. We reaffirm our commitment to fully implement the outcomes of the Johannesburg Summit and previous Summits.
  • We look forward to the 11th BRICS Summit to be hosted by Brazil in 2019 and extend our full support to Brazil as the incoming BRICS Chair.
China's building BRICS in South Africa (Китай строит из кирпичиков БРИКС в ЮАР) / South Africa, November, 2018
Keywords: expert_opinion, political_issues
South Africa
Author: Fazlin Fransman

China understands that its engagement with South Africa and the rest of the developing world, as stated in its foreign-aid policy white paper, has to be mutually beneficial, and for the benefit of the partner country, in this case South Africa.

Engulfed in the euphoria of securing additional investment from South Africa's biggest trading partner, a buoyant South African President, opened the 10th BRICS Summit side-by-side with Chinese President Xi Jinping who subsequently announced China commitment to $14.7-billion in investments in South Africawith a key emphasis on sectors such as oceans and green economy, energy,science and technology, agriculture, environment and finance.

Since the announcement, emphasis has shifted from the broader BRICS Summit, to analysis and concern about China's role in Africa, and whether we are witnessing a renewed scramble for Africa, with the recent announcement being termed a "neo-colonial project".

This criticism frames China within a historical context, based on Africa's turbulent history with the West, and removes the agency that individual African states have to chart their own way forward.

This narrative also negates the evolution of Chinese foreign policy over the last decade, especially under the leadership of President Xi Jinping, and overlooks the evidence that China is engaging with the world in a more systematic way than it did before. This is partly because of the Belt and Road Initiative, and the rebuilding of connections in countries across Asia and Africa.

China's Evolving Foreign Policy

In 2011, for the first time in its history, China released a White Paper on its foreign aid policy. The paper outlines the aid modalities that China uses to deliver developmental assistance to countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It further highlights that its policy is based on the principles of peaceful coexistence, respect for recipient countries' right to independently select their own model of development and the belief that every country should explore a development path suitable to its actual conditions.

The 2014 White Paper reiterates these same principles, emphasizing that these principles remains the cornerstone of its foreign aid policy. The second paper further emphasizes that "mutual respect, equality, keeping promises, mutual benefits and win-win" is what officially drives their aid policy.

Faced with the global challenges of reform and innovation, the aid policy acknowledges that "China adapts its foreign aid to the development of both domestic and international situations" and continuously adjusts and reforms its aid allocation and delivery mechanisms to improve efficacy.

The paper further asserts that unlike other international donors, China does not have elaborate "country plans" for its partner countries. Instead, after consulting with their counterparts in the respective countries, Chinese embassies convey to Beijing the actual needs of its partner countries and how best China can provide support in particular sectors . Thus, it can be inferred from the policy document that China's foreign aid is demand-driven.

This is in line with the South African President's investment drive, where he articulated his government would engage in an aggressive investment drive in both the West and the East. Prior to the announcement, diplomats from both countries engaged extensively to iron out the modalities of the $14.7-billion in investments, which includes a considerable portion being earmarked for state-owned enterprises.

It is important to emphasize that China views development financing differently than traditional aid-providers. For them, aid, trade, and investment are seen as interconnected in a mutually beneficial framework. It is therefore poignant to not only focus on aid exclusively and separately from other modes of development financing. It is essentially an " aid-business-trade model", that combines all three into one strand.

As such, it would be incorrect to measure, monitor and evaluate China's aidobjectives using the same set of definitions, standards and parameters established by traditional aid donors . It would be more prudent to evaluate whether China adheres to its avowed principles of international development cooperation comprising features such as mutual respect, non-conditionality, equality, building local capacity and addressing actual needs of partner countries.

No scramble. Just mutually beneficial partnerships

Africans are not passive participants in a "neo-colonial project" in relation to China. Instead they are active economic agents who play strategic roles in the geo-political landscape. This was elucidated in the statements made by South Africa's Minister of Trade and Industry Rob Davies, who addressed the opening of the 10th BRICS Summit, in the presence of Chinese President Xi Jinping. He stated emphatically that South Africa's trade imbalance with China was unsustainable. He was referring specifically to South Africa exporting raw natural resources to China.

For those who continue to frame China's investment and trade within Africa as one of exploitation, would see Rob Davies' statements as both audacious and confrontational. However, China understands that its engagement with South Africa and the rest of the developing world, as stated in its foreign-aid policy white paper, has to be mutually beneficial, and for the benefit of the partner country, in this case South Africa.

This does not mean that there are not isolated instances where Chinese aid/investment/trade has not reached the desired outcome, for both the China and the partner country. However, this does not mean its aid/ investment/ trade has a sinister agenda. As stated in their own foreign aid policy white paper, they do not have elaborate "country plans" for its recipient countries, and instead its often demand-driven.

Some have argued, that these white papers are in direct contrast to the Belt and Road Initiative, which has guided China's foreign policy in recent years. In some instances it is true, however, within the context of South Africa, and the recent announcement by President Xi Jinping of $14.7-billion in investments, it is not.

Greater analysis needs to be given to China's "aid-business-trade model", which operates in a different paradigm than the traditional developmental aid organisations. This would negate measuring, monitoring and evaluating China's aid objectives using the same set of definitions, standards and parameters established by traditional developmental aid donors. DM

BRICS leaders' meeting (Встреча лидеров БРИКС) / Russia, November, 2018
Keywords: g20, speech, top_level_meeting, vladimir_putin

Vladimir Putin took part in a meeting of leaders of the BRICS member countries held on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Argentina.

* * *

President of Russia Vladimir Putin: Friends, colleagues,

I am pleased that we are meeting again and, like my colleagues, I express my gratitude to the President of South Africa, Mr Ramaphosa, for organising our work and for everything South Africa has done during its chairmanship.

I would like to join in the gratitude addressed to President of Brazil Michel Temer. He supported our organisation, and I can add that he also has done a lot to strengthen Russian-Brazilian relations. We know and remember that. Mr President, we will always be glad to see you in Russia.

Thanks to efficient cooperation between the BRICS members, our strategic partnership has grown stronger and continues to actively develop in the most diverse areas.

It is important that the BRICS members are improving coordination within international organisations and forums. Our meeting today, which is a chance to discuss our positions on the eve of the G20 summit, is a testament to that.

I support much of what my colleagues have said about the difficult situation in global politics, economy, trade and finance. I would also note such risk factors as an increase in global debt, volatility of stock markets and escalating trade disputes.

In general, we cannot help noticing that unfair competition often takes the place of fair and equitable intergovernmental dialogue. The nefarious practice of imposing unilateral sanctions and protectionist measures without regard to the UN Charter, WTO rules and other generally accepted legal norms is spreading.

All of this seriously undermines the atmosphere of cooperation on the global stage and leads to declining business ties and loss of trust between participants of economic relations, distorting the very fabric of the global economy.

The BRICS countries should continue to work together to create a fair and equitable system of international relations. Collective action based on mutual respect and consideration of interests is needed in order to overcome the critical challenges facing the international community.

First of all, this concerns the settlement of numerous regional crises, which are fraught with real danger not only for the countries involved, but for the rest of the world as well. Of particular concern is the situation in the Middle East, namely, the Gaza Strip, Yemen, Iraq, Libya, Afghanistan and several other countries and regions.

Meeting of BRICS leaders.
Unfortunately, the danger posed by international terrorism is not subsiding. Of course, double standards or any compromises are unacceptable when it comes to terrorist groups, not to mention making reckless use of them to achieve geopolitical ends, since flirting with terrorists plays into their hands and emboldens them to commit new bloody atrocities.

Thus, in Syria, where militants continue armed attacks on the government forces, the November 24 attack on residents of the western districts of the city of Aleppo involving the use of toxic chemical agents, presumably chlorine, was a blatant violation of the ceasefire. Dozens of Syrians were affected, including children. Such crimes perpetrated by terrorists should not go unpunished, otherwise they will not stop.

For a long-term stabilisation of the situation in Syria, it is important to promote an actual political settlement process. To this end, Russia is working closely with its partners, Iran and Turkey, within the Astana format. We look forward to the formation and convocation of the constitutional committee in Geneva as soon as possible.

Other priorities include rebuilding the economy and infrastructure in that country and creating conditions for the return of refugees to their homes. I hope that the BRICS countries will join humanitarian aid programmes in that country.

In order to prevent a new round of escalating tensions around the Iranian nuclear programme, we should do our best to maintain the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.

Progress in resolving the Korean Peninsula crisis is a positive development. However, the categorical demands for unilateral concessions from Pyongyang could lead to a disruption of the agreements reached. Therefore, it is important that the sanctions against this country should gradually be relieved in response to the disarmament steps taken by North Korea.

Naturally, one cannot help being alarmed by the state of affairs in non-proliferation and disarmament. The possible withdrawal by the United States of its obligations under the INF Treaty and its unclear position on extending the Strategic Arms Treaty pose the risk of an uncontrolled arms race.

At the meeting of BRICS leaders.
We presume that the BRICS countries will hold a common position on these critical issues. This will be an important factor in mobilising the efforts of the world community for the sake of international security and stability.


I would like to note with satisfaction that the BRICS countries have largely coinciding approaches to the key issues on the G20 agenda. Our countries have great economic, innovative, and human potential.

The BRICS countries have already overtaken the G7 in terms of aggregate GDP ($44 trillion) and in purchasing power parity. They can play a more significant role in the global financial system, push for the continuation of the IMF reform and for greater influence in the IMF.

A significant contribution to financial stability has been made by the new development bank, which is now supporting 26 projects in BRICS countries with $6.5 billion in financing. We also expect the bond and national currencies fund of the BRICS countries to become available in 2019, which would allow strengthening financial and investment stability and expanding the interaction of national payment systems.

We are committed to supporting the groundwork for the process of further developing the World Trade Organisation to stabilise it. It is important that trade disputes are settled exclusively through dialogue that all interested countries can join.

We pay special attention to coordinating the BRICS countries' positions on issues related to energy and climate change. Russia, as a reliable exporter of energy to many countries and regions in the world, intends to continue to actively participate in harmonising global energy markets jointly with other suppliers and consumers of fuel and to provide global energy security.

Meeting of BRICS leaders.
We welcome the fact that the Paris Agreement on climate has come into effect and believe it to be a reliable international legal instrument for long-term climate regulation. It is critically important to finish drafting the rules to implement it, taking into consideration the views of all stakeholders.

We regard the sustainable development of agriculture as a key topic on the G20 agenda. Russia is a large producer and exporter of agricultural produce, contributing significantly to food security. Over the last 10 years, we supplied over 650,000 tonnes of food and humanitarian aid to more than 110 countries.

We believe it is important that this year agreements on the digital economy and adaptation of the labour market and education systems have been reached within the G20. We express our gratitude to our BRICS partners for supporting the Russian idea of consumer rights' protection in the digital economy and our initiatives to step up coordinated actions at the UN on internet governance and international information security.

The agenda also includes the important topic of combatting corruption. We are ready to work together, including in line with India's proposal to pursue fugitive economic criminals. During discussions at the UN, I am counting on the support of BRICS members for the Russian draft international convention on returning stolen assets.

Colleagues, in conclusion I would like to wish success to our Brazilian partners next year, during their chairmanship of BRICS. We will provide all the necessary assistance.

Thank you for your attention.

Investment and Finance
Investment and finance in BRICS
BRICS nations call for cancellation of unilateral trade measures — Russian minister (Страны БРИКС требуют отмены односторонних торговых мер - министр России) / Russia, December, 2018
Keywords: top_level_meeting, quotation,economic_challenge

Russian Minister of Economic Development Maxim Oreshkin said "any unilateral actions must be canceled as they negatively impact global development"

"The position that has been declared is that all unilateral measures that have been adopted and used in the recent years, should be canceled. This is a common position of the BRICS nations," he told journalists at the G20 summit.

The BRICS nations plan to agree on an initiative at the G20 summit to modernize existing trade instruments, in particular the World Trade Organization (WTO). "It [WTO] should be developed. The key principle is that the World Trade Organization remains the only platform authorized to set global trade rules and any unilateral actions must be canceled as they negatively impact global development," Oreshkin stressed.

This position, in his words, was elaborated by Russia jointly with China. "In the past several weeks, we have been working actively to persuade others that these wordings, these positions are right. We have managed to do that, so it is a common position of the BRICS nations on the situation in global trade," he said, adding that there are no guarantees that these proposals would be included in the final statement.
The Trump Presidency: A New Opportunity for the BRICS? (Президентство Трампа: новая возможность для БРИКС?) / Germany, November, 2018
Keywords: expert_opinion, economic_challenges, political_issues
Author: Richard A. Black, The Schiller Institute

During a press conference in Moscow on November 19th, 2018, following a conference marking the 20th anniversary of the International Space Station, Roscosmos director Dmitry Rogozin and NASA's manned mission director Bill Gerstenmaier affirmed the strength of the Russian-American cooperation in space. Rogozin said that Russia is working on a heavy booster rocket and a new spacecraft to complement American projects intended for a future moon mission. "We absolutely trust each other, and political winds haven't touched us," Rogozin said. Gerstenmaier spoke in kind, noting that space exploration "has driven us together" as effective partners that could "be an example to the outside world." "Human space flight is very unique in the fact that it requires absolute trust between each other. To make this work, we have to be totally transparent with each other."

This close current US/Russia collaboration may be surprising to some. Yet, with fundamental scientific collaboration among the BRICS nations so active and central to their economic development, and with President Trump's re-focus of the United States on a manned-landing on the Moon, on Mars exploration, and with President Trump's revived mission statement for NASA "to search for life's origins, evolution, distribution and future in the universe," there may be a pathway for first-time American collaboration with the BRICS nations. Meeting in Moscow recently, with South Africa's Minister of International Relations and Cooperation, Ms. Lindiwe Sisulu, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov stressed, "We maintain very substantive cooperation in high-tech, and have signed an agreement on the use of nuclear energy for oncology treatment. We have a working group on space exploration…" In March of 2017, President Trump signed a bill authorizing a boosting of the

NASA yearly budget to $19.5 billion. A radical break from the "cost-cutting" approach to space flight of the Obama years, NASA was ordered to submit a "human exploration roadmap [to] expand human presence beyond low earth orbit to the surface of Mars and beyond," and to "engage our partners across the world." During this past week, statements from the Foreign Ministries of both the Russian Federation and of China, have expressed cautious optimism concerning the upcoming bi-lateral Summit Meetings, in Buenos Aires--November 30-December 1-- between Presidents Putin and Trump, and between Presidents Xi and Trump. President Trump has repeatedly campaigned in the US for normalizing relations with The Russian Federation and for returning to his initial positive attitude towards China. Will these summits of two major BRICS leaders and the US President be productive in moving towards what Schiller Institute President Helga Zepp-LaRouche calls "a new ordering principle for a disunited world"? What is that new ordering principle?

Let us note, here, that the possibilities for economic development which we have indicated are all immediately threatened by a series of vast debt bubbles, now at the bursting point, in the West. In the US, The Washington Post published an article, this week, entitled, "Is the Financial Time Bomb in Sight?" The combination of years of speculation, driven by Quantitative Easing, the current reverse carry-trade, the US corporate debt bubble of $14-15 trillion--mostly of leveraged lending--now have all combined to create the conditions for a collapse perhaps worse than that of 2008. Schiller Institute President Helga Zepp-LaRouche addressed this crisis and posed a comprehensive solution, recently, in an address given in Moscow. Presenting a paper at a conference last month at The Institute of Far Eastern Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, she stated, in part: "What my husband, Lyndon LaRouche, has already proposed several years ago is still valid: The four most powerful nations in the world, the US, Russia, China and India—supported by others like Japan, South Korea and others—must set up in the short term a New Bretton Woods system, to avoid the potentially devastating consequences of an uncontrolled financial collapse. The new international credit system must correct the flaws of the old Bretton Woods system, which was not realized as President Franklin Delano Roosevelt intended, but was corrupted by the influence of Churchill and Truman. It must guarantee the unconditional sovereignty of each and all nation-states participating in it, and it must promote their unlimited opportunities to participate in the benefits of scientific and technological progress to the mutual benefit of each and all.

"This New Bretton woods system must have as its most important feature a profound change in the monetary, economic and political relations between the dominant powers and the so-called developing nations. Unless the inequities lingering in the aftermath of modern colonialism are progressively remedied, neither can there be peace, nor can such challenges as the migration crisis or terrorism be overcome.

"The basic conception for such a new credit and economic system already exists in principle in the Belt and Road policy of President Xi Jinping. In the five years of its existence, it has created an unprecedented dynamic of hope and optimism among the approximately 100 countries participating in it, and given the rate of progress in such a short time, it is obvious that the goal defined by President Xi Jinping, of a 'beautiful world' by 2050 for all humanity is absolutely achievable. "The new set of international relations required for the New Paradigm is already in the process of being built. The increasing integration of the Belt and Road Initiative, The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, and the Global South organizations, is progressing successfully and is already creating completely new strategic alliances for the mutual benefit of all participating in them. The 'Spirit of the New Silk Road' has caught on in most countries of Asia and Latin America; it has for the first time in centuries given hope to Africa, which President Xi has called the continent with the greatest development potential and which President Putin has promised to 'light up by providing it with nuclear technology.' Many are now speaking of 'Africa, the new China with African characteristics!' And despite the reluctance of the European Union and the present Berlin government, there are an increasing number of people in Europe, who want to be fully integrated in the New Silk Road, such as the 16+1 countries, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, but especially Austria and Italy.

"The biggest and unavoidable challenge however will be to find a solution which includes the US. Given the actual level of militarization of the US, both in terms of the armed forces as well as the arming of the population domestically, the chance that the US would disintegrate or accept to be excluded from an alternative world system as peacefully as it happened with the end of the Soviet Union is probably tending to zero. The military policy of President Putin, announced on March 1, regarding Russian military science and the strategic alliance between Russia and China, shows Russian and Chinese clarity on this. So, if the Thucydides Trap is supposed to be avoided, there has to be a design of a solution, which integrates the US in a higher order of organization of the world order. "The common political platform offered must be conceptualized from the standpoint of what Nikolaus Kusansky defined as a completely new form of thinking, his famous 'Coincidentia oppositorum,' the One, which has a higher order of reality than the Many. This is already implicit in President Xi Jinping's conception of the 'Shared Community for the common future of Mankind.'

"Rather than approaching the question of the new set of relations among the nations of the world from the standpoint of proceeding from the status quo, the vision of how the human species will have grown into adulthood in 50 or 100 years from now must provide a concrete set of policy cooperation proposals. By that time, according to the scientific theory of Vladimir Vernadsky, the Noosphere will have advanced its dominance over the Biosphere qualitatively, and new generations of scientists and classical artists will communicate with each other based on the search for new physical ans artistic principles."

If the nations of the BRICS grouping can proceed from such an advanced standpoint, there is the possibility that President Trump can reverse President Obama's early explicit and hostile rejection of President Xi's invitation for BRICS cooperation. Mrs. LaRouche concluded her well-received address at the Institute of Far Eastern Studies by stating: "The ordering principle for a disunited world today can become the basis for joint leadership of the presidents of China, Russia, India and the United States."

Given the frenzy of the Russia- bashing in the West and the foolishness of the recent New York Times series on China as the country that "refuses to fail," advertising the march into the Thucydides Trap, it may seem unlikely to many people in the world, that the US and the BRICS could find a common pathway. The only perspective from which to address this existential question is the one from the future. Where do we want mankind to be a hundred years from now? Do we want to be extinct, where there will not even be a British Museum to collect the remnants of a nuclear rubble-field, or do we want to live in a New Paradigm, a completely new set of international relations, where we together enjoy the benefits of energy and raw materials security, as a result of having achieved commercial thermonuclear fusion energy and having built villages on the moon? Lets take the latter approach, and be optimistic about it, since we are the only creative species known in the universe, so far.

G20 Summit in Buenos Aires: the risks and stakes are high, expectations low (Саммит G20 в Буэнос-Айресе: риски и ставки высоки, ожидания низкие) / Russia, November, 2018
Keywords: g20, expert_opinion, economic_challanges
Author: Marina Larionova

The G20 summit will be held on 30th of November – 1st of December in Buenos Aires amid rising geopolitical tensions and grave new and persistent challenges. Increasing financial markets globalization creates risks of rapid spread of crisis to emerging markets countries in case of problems in the markets of large developed countries. New financial technologies contain risks of malpractice and rising complexity and intransparency of financial products.

Growing imbalances and rising debts, the two main causes of 2008 economic crisis, are exacerbated. Intensifying protectionism contains economic growth. The G20 commitment to refrain from protectionist measures, made in November 2008 and reiterated since then at each subsequent summit, failed to restraint escalation of protectionism. The G20 members undertook 1671 restrictive measures from 2008 to 2016. At the 2017 Hamburg summit the G20 failed to agree the core antiprotectionist commitments and recognised the role of legitimate trade defense instruments reflecting the US position. The World Trade Organization (WTO) estimates that from May to October 2018 the trade coverage of the import-restrictive measures increased in six times compared to the previous period and amounted to USD481 billion.

According to various estimates, an infrastructure financing deficit in the world is about USD1-2 trillion annually. In the forthcoming 15 years sustainable infrastructure development will require USD3 billion of new investments every year. The risks of digital divide and informational security are rising. China, the US, Canada, Russia, Germany, the UK, France and India are in the top-10 countries in the world in terms of a number of DoS attacks.

The crisis of multipolarity in the system of international relations disrupts the sustainable economic growth perspectives. It is suffice to say that in 2018 for the first time in the G7, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) history the member countries were not able to agree on the final documents of the G7 summit, OECD annual ministerial meeting and APEC summit. Can the G20 in this context harness its potential to forge collective decisions and respond to persistent challenges?

The hope exists. It draws on the G20 cooperation past successes.

The G20 initiated the global financial regulations reforms: advanced regulation of the OTC derivatives, hedge funds, credit rating agencies, Global Systemically Important Financial Institutions (G-SIFIs); pushed progress in improving the International Accounting Standards (IAS) and banking capital and liquidity requirements (Basel standards) and revising senior management compensation practices. The Financial Stability Board (FSB) assessments of the progress, mandated by the G20, confirm a high level of compliance with financial regulation decisions, including capital and liquidity requirements improvement; addressing problems with the G-SIFIs; changing compensation practices, etc.

To restore domestic credit systems and international capital flows, the G20 leaders at their London summit decided to support the third in the International Monetary Fund (IMF) history distribution of the Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) in the amount of USD250 billion. Markets responded positively to this global liquidity increase, and in combination with other measures related to the global monetary and financial system functioning, agreed by the G20 (increasing resources and improving IMF lending) the allocation of SDRs helped to mitigate the severity of the crisis.

The developing countries' pressure led to the approval by the G20 in 2010 of the IMF quota and governance reform package. The decisions on reform came into force on January 26, 2016. 2.8% of quotas were reallocated to the developing countries. A positive outcome of the reform was the increase of the BRICS countries' total share of votes in the IMF to 14.18%. The capital of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) grew by USD86.2 billion, and the capital of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) increased by USD0.2 billion. It was agreed that the share of emerging market and developing countries in the IBRD would increase by 3.13%. As a result, their share increased by 4.59%, and the total percentage of votes reached 47.19%. The share of votes of these countries in the IFC was increased by 6.07% to 39.48%.

In 2013, the G20 approved the OECD Action Plan on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting. Pooling the efforts of the OECD and the G20 allowed to involve all members of these institutions, both developed and developing, as well as a significant number of non-member partner countries. As a result, the total number of states participating in the Inclusive Framework on BEPS reached 118.

The G20 promoted the adoption of the Trade Facilitation Agreement and its ratification. In the employment sphere the G20 made about 118 commitments. The average unemployment rate for G20 members dropped to 5.2% in 2018, compared with 9% in 2010. Transition to more efficient and sustainable energy consumption patterns were set out as a shared objective in the 2017 Climate and Energy Action Plan for Growth. At the 2017 Hamburg summit the G20 stated that it "aims to create favorable conditions for the development of the digital economy," including through the convergence of norms and standards for the production and provision of digital goods and services. The RANEPA and UoT analysis reveals that the G20 members' compliance with the commitment is as high as 95%.
Overall, in the past decade, the G20 member states agreed on 2,230 commitments and demonstrated a fairly high level of their implementation (the average level of compliance was about 75%). It gives some ground for modestly optimistic expectations.

So can the G20 justify the expectations of optimists and pragmatists? What should be the priorities for the summit agenda?

The risks to global financial stability and coordination of monetary policy should be at the top of the G20 Buenos Aires agenda. The process of revising the formula for the IMF quotas calculation should be completed and work on creating an effective mechanism for regulating global liquidity should be launched.

The Buenos Aires summit achievement would be the G20 a return to the commitment to not apply new restrictions and remove existing protectionist measures, even if on "twenty minus one" formula, used in Hamburg for the climate commitment. The G20 should consolidate efforts in pursuit of the World Trade Organization systemic contradictions (above all, the crisis in the Dispute Settlement Body) and encourage development of regulatory frameworks in new industries, including the development of digital commerce.

Given the public resources constraint to increase infrastructure investment, the G20 catalyze cooperation on enhancing profitability of infrastructure projects for private investors and transforming infrastructure financing tools into an independent asset class. The ultimate goal could be formation of a global infrastructure assets market similar to the largest commodities markets. G20 should step up efforts to improve the functioning of multilateral development banks on the basis of agreed principles on which their operations will be based; the creation of country platforms as the core of the investment value chains; a programmatic approach to risks insurance and system-wide securitization for mobilizing institutional investors' funds.

The G20 commitment to continued cooperation on tax can reduce risks of unfair international tax competition increasing transparency with regard to tax incentives for competition at the international level (the cost and benefits of most tax incentive mechanisms are currently unknown) and further improving the multilateral tax-sharing mechanisms.

The G20 should address the gap between skills and demands of digital economy creating a sustainable system of skills development and cooperate with the B20 to solve the problem of informal employment.

The G20, or G20 minus one, reaffirmation of the commitment to the Paris Agreement, nationally determined contributions and transition to more efficient and sustainable energy consumption models would be an important response to the challenge of critics and skeptics accusing the G20 of inefficiency, illegitimacy and inability to overcome internal divisions.

The collective expression of political will to implement these decisions at the G20 summit in Buenos Aires can be a confirmation of its role as a key forum of economic governance, an important milestone in strengthening the G20 political leadership and its power to contribute to shaping new rules in the system of international economic relations.

Will the G20 live up to these expectations? We will learn in the coming days.

Author: Dr. Marina Larionova, Head of the Center for International Institutions Research (CIIR), Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)
BRICS: Sustaining growth amidst renaissance (БРИКС: устойчивый рост на фоне ренессанса) / India, November, 2018
Keywords: ndb, expert_opinion, economic_challenges
Author: Rahul Mazumdar

Changing world order

Many pockets in the world today are experiencing something that has not been seen for a long time. A sense of rising 'populism' is engulfing the key economies in the world, which mostly defy the natural economic world order that have so far largely been an outcome of globalization.

While the US being the world's largest democracy remains the cynosure which precipitously claims to be the victim of its own open trade policies that it has propounded since the end of the Second World War, the emerging economies particularly the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) have not remained unscathed by this development.

While anti-globalization is one thing, a socio-economic renaissance akin to the worldwide pattern is becoming increasingly visible in BRICS economies as well.

It will not be out of place to say that ever since the Arab Spring, the world continues to witness sporadic incidents of discontentment. However, the magnitude of it today seems amplified and has spread to more economies across continents.

The latest in such a fray is Brazil. The largest economy in Latin America, which once showed promise has been embroiled in scandals, faltering economy, high unemployment, and has now recently elected Jair Bolsonaro as its President. He apparently has been one who is known to have radical thoughts with a right wing ideology. During the election campaign he was often been touted as the 'Trump of the Tropics' given his controlling working style. A fall in raw material prices and collapsing investor confidence has shaken the Brazilian economy in the last few years. While unemployment hovers around 12%, concerns over maintaining fiscal prudence remains. As the new president assumes power in January 2019, Brazilian businesses are at tenterhooks expecting some market-friendly reforms.

Putin in Russia remains a potent force ever since he came to power in 2000. Post-cold war era he has provided a sense of déjà vu and national pride by re-establishing Russia, bringing stability, and restoring Russia's influence in global policy. Economically Russia has been facing sanctions from US since 2014, which are preventing it growing to its full potential. Indeed, GDP growth is expected to be around 1.5%-1.8% during 2018-20, but nevertheless Russia may be further impacted if there is a substantial decline in oil prices. Recently, the decision to rise the pension age to manage its fiscal XXX, has sparked nationwide protests. Unfortunately though, as is a typical hallmark of any long serving authoritarian leader, Putin is often alleged to have throttled and not been lenient with the press.

In India, Prime Minister Modi was elected to power with a thumping majority four years back. He vowed to curb corruption, and in the process successfully introduced the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code in 2016 to clean up the banking sector. His economic policies unlike in the US, have been pro-globalization. Another difference with the US and India is that irrespective of all the criticisms, Trump still continues to be rigid and strive to fulfill his electoral mandate however regressive it may appear to others In contrast, at the tail end of Modi's tenure there are apprehensions in some quarters with regard to his economic and development policies getting hijacked to meet other objectives. As far as the economy is concerned, India is still one of the fastest growing economies, but given that it is more interconnected globally than it was in 2008-09 when it successfully overcame the global recession, today the economy increasingly faces pressure due to changes in economic conditions overseas.

Xi Jinping has emerged as an astute Chinese premiere in the last five years who harbours a vision to re-build the age old Silk Route.

He not only has set in motion its physical progress, but has also created financial institutions like the Beijing based Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank (AIIB) to fund this ambition. Yet, Xi has also made legislative changes to anoint himself as the President for life. While China has incrementally progressed over the last two decades, the 2008 financial crisis set America back and China took the opportunity to flourish. Coincidentally, there are similarities between Russia and China. Both economies are not only acerbic to US hegemony and would like to see a weaker Western alliance, but may also end up seeing one of the longest serving heads of nation in modern times, while being accused of curbing journalistic freedom, and access to select websites.

South Africa the smallest amongst the BRICS peer, has enormous resources and great wealth but also vast inequality and poverty. Cyril Ramaphosa who is universally acknowledged as a supporter of democratic ideals, assumed leadership earlier this year at the back of corruption governance, and promises to ameliorate these anomalies. The outlook of the South African economy however is not that promising. The economy is growing below 2%, and various rating agencies have opined GDP growth to decelerate further. Nevertheless, the unemployment rate increased from about 20% in 1994 to about 27% in 2018.

Post the global financial crisis in 2008, the contours of the world's socio-economic fabric has experienced a phenomenal change - increasing anti-globalization and trade protectionism (initiated by the US and retorted by China), isolationism and economic nationalism (due to BREXIT, Trump, etc.), apart from the pockets of sporadic conflicts (as witnessed in Ukraine, Syria, Yemen, Somalia, etc.).

Most of these dispensations, as in other emerging and developed economies, echoes similar sentiments. They assume everything that has been done in the past was not in the right spirit and order, and hence a sense of renaissance. However, as the world goes through these, it is worth recalling how difficult the changeover to democracy was in the first place for many of these economies.

On the contrary, while appreciating the present day nuances it would be desirable to have more of a balanced narrative, make course corrections wherever required, rather than reinventing the political and socio-economic discourse.

BRICS can do more

In such a situation, wherein large parts of the world economy have been on a ventilator for a prolonged period, the role of BRICS economies becomes poignant. The GDP growth of BRICS has largely been propelled by India and China. Even during the 2008-2009 crisis period, it was these two economies which were the bright spots globally. However, since 2014 there has been some apparent downturn in the BRICS economies, albeit India which started experiencing it after two years. Countries like Brazil and Russia even showed negative growth rates in some of the years that followed crisis which emanated from US. The situation as experienced by trade war, and rising risks of protectionism is poised to decelerate the BRICS economies in next few years if things do not change for better.

Even after a decade of cooperation, share of intra-BRICS imports have increased from just 15% in 2008 to 17% in 2017. The irony is that with 26% of land area and 43% of the world population there is no dearth of trade and investment opportunities.

It is important that BRICS economies look beyond the intermittent, standard solicitations, and rather work together to facilitate concrete trade and investment mechanisms within themselves and become a bloc to reckon with.

The New Development Bank which has undoubtedly been the biggest achievements of this bloc would require spreading itself across its member states – both in terms of the financial proposals undertaken and its physical presence. NDB should strive to become the key pivotal financial institution facilitating sustained business within BRICS. In fact the success of NDB should be built upon to create other institutions of eminence for the bloc.

BRICS has come a long way in the last ten years, and it may be natural to have some ideological dissonances due to evolving geo-politics and changing priorities. Today for example the historical rivals China and Russia, under the US pressure are becoming allies and forming bilateral economic and strategic relations, and in the process raises India's eyebrows. However, it is important to identify the common threads that underline the tenet of the formation of this bloc, which amongst others was promoting trade and investment, respecting sovereignty and democratic decision making, while promoting multilateralism.

Recently, French President Macron organized a Paris Peace Forum which was attended by many world leaders, making an impassioned plea for world peace and cooperation, and continued work towards multilateralism. As countries on both sides of the Atlantic are looking inward and betterment and resentment festers, it is an opportunity for the BRICS economies to embrace globalization more than ever before. The G-20 commune are about to meet later this month in Argentina. It would be important for the BRICS which constitutes 13.24% of World Bank voting power and 14.91% of IMF quota shares, to chalk an agenda to respond to the current challenges for themselves and for the world.

Comprehensive reports, BRICS research materials
New Book: The International Political Economy Of The BRICS (Новая книга: Международная политическая экономика БРИКС) / Denmark, November, 2018
Keywords: research, economic_challenges

Exploring to what extent the BRICS group is a significant actor challenging the global order, this book focuses on the degree and consequence of their emergence and explores how important cooperation is to individual BRICS members' foreign policy strategies and potential relevance as leaders in regional and global governance.

The BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) have come to play an important role on the global political scene. As a group, and as individual countries, they have taken initiatives to establish new institutions, and have engaged in yearly summits that coordinate their voice and focus on intra-BRICS cooperation. In this sense, the BRICS may be seen as a 'balancing coalition', and often the main opposing force to Western powers. Looking at the debate around the role of the BRICS as an actor, expert contributors also explore the international political economy (IPE) of individual BRICS countries as systemically important countries with highly asymmetrical individual power capacities.

The comprehensive theoretical, empirical coverage of this timely volume will be especially useful to students, researchers and professionals interested in ongoing academic debates around the IPE of emerging powers, and those researching global governance and globalization.


"The idea for this volume was jointly initiated by the Routledge IPE book series and I, with the support of my colleague Steen Fryba Christensen. Together, Steen and I made the book proposal and together we signed the book contract with Routledge. Unfortunately, Steen passed away right after the contract was signed.

I wish to have this book devoted in special memory to Steen. I am sure that he would be very happy to see this book project completed, since the book's theme and the chapters' topics were of great interest to him. I wish to thank him for his friendship, support, passion and collegial relationship for two decades (1998-2018). May his spirit remain with us and encourage us to continue our work and life."

Expected publication: 21 march 2019

Editors: Li Xing
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781138579576
Number of pages: 240 | 12 B/W Illus.
Year of publication: 2019
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