Trade Union Forum


General overview

The Republic of India is located in South Asia and is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west, the Laccadive Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the east, the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the south.

India includes the Laccadive Islands, the Andaman Islands, and the Nicobar Islands. The country is the seventh-largest country with total area of 3,287.6 thousand square kilometers (2.4% of the inhabited land).

The total length of the country's coastline is approximately 7,000 km. India is situated on three peninsulas: Hindustan, Kutch and Kathiawar.

From the south to the north of the country, there are several geographical areas: the elevated plains, plateaus, highlands of the Hindustan peninsula, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the Himalayas and the Karakoram mountain systems.

India owns rich reserves of bauxite, chromite, copper, gold, beryllium, muscovite, barite and coal; iron, lead and zinc ores. Most of the oil and natural gas deposits are concentrated in the Cambay oil and gas basin in the west of the country, in the northeast and on the southeastern coast, on the shelf of the Bay of Bengal.

National borders

The Republic of India has land borders with Bangladesh (4,053 km), Bhutan (605 km), China (3,380 km), Myanmar (1,463 km), Nepal (1,690 km) and Pakistan (2,912 km). In addition, India has maritime borders with the Maldives, Sri Lanka and Indonesia.


Climate in India is monsoon subequatorial, except for high-altitude areas, in the northwestern regions it is tropical. India has three seasons: winter – dry and cool, with a predominance of the northeast trade wind (November–February); spring – hot and dry (March–May); summer – hot and humid, with monsoon winds (June–October). Winter is characterized by significant regional differences of temperatures: in the north of the country, the average temperature in January is 10–14 °C, in the south it does not drop below 25 °C. The highest temperatures are observed in May: in the northwest, it can reach 48 °C, in other regions it is 28–35 °C.