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General information

Officially: the Federal Republic of Brazil (FRB).
Government type: federal presidential constitutional republic.
President (2021): Jair Bolsonaro.
Official language: Portuguese (Brazilian Portuguese).
Capital: Brasilia.


Brazil was discovered on April 24, 1500, by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral. The Portuguese colonization of Brazil began in 1533. Over the next three centuries, the territory of the state was settled by the Portuguese and became an important exporter of ornamental wood, sugar cane, coffee, and gold.

The independence of Brazil from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve was declared on 7 September, 1822. From the independence declaration in 1822, until the abolition of slavery in 1888, the country had established a monarchy. After the abolition of slavery, Brazil became a federal republic.

The Federal Republic of Brazil was formed on November 15, 1889, as a result of a military coup. The change of the political system was carried out without casualties. The provinces were reorganized into states, and the constitutional monarchy was replaced by a presidential form of government. In 1964 - 1985, the political regime in Brazil was characterized by authoritarianism due to the fact that the presidential post was held by the military. The economic strategy of the military was effective, but the political system tended to be repressive. From 1985 to 1989, the country's society and government were democratized. In 1989, Fernando Collor de Mello was elected president, and in 1992 he was accused of corruption and removed from office.

From 1995 to 2003, the position of President was held by Fernando Henrique Cardoso. Cardoso favoured social-democratic policy and economical neoliberalism. During Cardoso's presidency, the country's economy has shifted from a predominantly state-owned economy to a predominantly market-based one and has managed to attract more foreign investors. Cardoso's pension reform resulted in unjustifiably high pensions for civil servants and employees of state-owned companies.
From 2003 to 2011, the position was held by Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. While maintaining Cardoso's overall social-democratic and macroeconomic policies, Lula's Government implemented a set of social and economic programs, achieving high rates of poverty reduction and reducing social inequality.
From 2011 to 2016, the position of President was held by Dilma Rousseff. She was then impeached. Maintained Lula's social-democratic policy. Led an anti-corruption policy, inviting independent experts to the government, cutting the budget of the administration and the salaries of civil servants.  Supported affirmative action, religious freedom, and civil unions for gay couples. Opposed capital punishment and the legalization of soft drugs.
From 2016 to 2019, the position was held by Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia. Temer's government's proposed pension and labor reforms resulted in strikes. Introduced a law against organized crime groups in Rio de Janeiro, handing over control over security in the city to the military until 2018.

From 2019 to the present, the President of the Republic is Jair Messias Bolsonaro. Supports right-wing, conservative views. Stands for a liberal economic course. Disapproves land reform, secularism and the legalization of drugs legalization.

The Constitution of 1988, as amended in 1994 and 1997, is now in force. Brazil is declared a democratic State based on the principles of sovereignty, citizenship, human dignity, social values, free enterprise and political pluralism.

Administrative division

The FRB is divided into 26 states and one federal district. Relations between the capital and the states are strictly regulated, interference is allowed in order to preserve territorial integrity, protect from external aggression, where a conflict between the states is possible, or in case of non-compliance with public order and financial discipline.

Apart from the division into states, there is a larger division - into regions:

  • Northern region. The largest city is Manaus. The region itself is the largest region of Brazil. The main sectors of the economy: metallurgy, energy, electronics, rubber production.
  • Northeastern region. The largest city is Recife. The region itself is the country's resort center. The main sectors of the economy: tourism, mechanical engineering, textile production, cocoa cultivation.
  • Central-Western region. The largest city is Brasilia. The region itself is the second largest region of the FRB. The main sectors of the economy: soybean cultivation, livestock farming.
  • Southeastern region. The largest city is São Paolo. Almost half of the country's population lives in this region. The largest cities and industrial enterprises are amassed here. The region itself is the business hub of the FRB.

Southern region. The largest city is Porto Alegre. The smallest region with a low population density. The main sectors of the economy: mechanical engineering, energy, fruit cultivation.