The Federative Republic of Brazil (FRB) is located in the eastern and central parts of South America mainland. The FRB is known to be the fifth largest country in the world and occupies 5.7% of the world's land area. It has a territory of 8 514 215,3 square kilometers, where 55 455 square kilometers is water.
It is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and the east. The coastline is 7491 km. long and. Many bays, several large gulfs, the mouth of the Amazon River, and large coastal lagoons also belong to the coastline. The FRB also owns a number of islands in the Atlantic Ocean: Atoll, Rocas, the islands of São Paulo, and the coastal island of Florianópolis.
Brazil has a diverse terrain and divides into several regions:
- Coastal lowlands, rich in red soil, with plantations of cotton, tobacco, cocoa, and sugar cane;
- The Amazon lowlands, which is the least developed and least populated area, rich in wood. The Amazon River itself is fully navigable within Brazil and up to the city of Iquitos in Peru;
- The Guiana Highlands, where manganese deposits are being developed;
- The Brazilian Highlands, rich in minerals and fertile soil. The eastern edge of the Highlands is densely populated. The capital of the FRB, Brasilia city, is located here;
- The Pantanal, an area of the Paraguay River basin, is used for grazing. It has extensive forage resources.
Brazil borders ten countries. The total length of the national borders is 14,691 km. Brazil borders:
- Bolivia - 3,400 km.;
- Venezuela - 2200 km.;
- Colombia - 1643 km.;
- Peru - 1560 km.;
- Paraguay - 1290 km.;
- Argentina-1224 km.;
- Guyana - 1119 km.;
- Uruguay - 985 km.;
- French Guiana - 673 km.;
- Suriname - 597 km.
Brazil is a tropical country, most of its areas are favorable for permanent residence.
Along the Coastal lowlands, a humid tropical climate prevails. In the north, high temperatures and heavy precipitation persist all year round, in the south, winters tend to be colder and drier, and summers are hot and humid. The average temperature of the warmest month (February) is 26°C, and the coldest (July) is 20°C.
Within the Amazon lowland, the average annual precipitation is 1800-2300 mm, mainly in the form of showers. This zone is characterized by constant high humidity. Hot weather is non-existent in this region. The highest recorded temperature is 36°C, and the lowest is 18°C.
The average temperature in the south of Brazil does not exceed 14-18°C. Frosts are common. Sometimes snow falls in the mountains but melts shortly afterward. With the appearance of polar air masses, there are long periods of cloudy, wet weather.
In the Brazilian Highlands, summers are warm and humid, while winters are cold and dry. Temperatures are not as high as in coastal areas and the Amazon lowlands, precipitation appears only at high altitude in the form of showers.
The Northeast of Brazil is the driest, with an average of 500-650 mm of precipitation per year. The precipitation regime varies drastically each year. Crops often suffer from excessive or insufficient moisture, which considerably harms farming.