The head of state in Russia is the President. The President of Russia is elected through popular vote to a six-year term and cannot be re-elected to more than two consecutive terms. The President shall be at least 35 years old and have permanent residency in Russia for at least 10 years. The President forms and heads the Security Council of Russia, appoints and dismisses the high command of the Armed Forces of Russia, appoints elections to the State Duma, signs bills into laws, promulgates federal laws, etc. One of the parties can nominate a presidential candidate, or the candidates can nominate themselves.
State power is divided into legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
The Russian Federation is a democratic federal state governed by the rule of law with a republican form of government. The country's constitutional order is based on the principles of sovereignty, citizenship, human dignity, social values, free enterprise, and political pluralism.
Legislative power is exercised by the bicameral Federal Assembly, which includes the State Duma (the lower house) and the Federation Council (the upper house).
The Federation Council consists of two representatives of each federal subject of the country — one from the executive and the other from the legislative bodies. The upper house approves federal laws and changes in the borders between the federal subjects of Russia, appoints presidential elections and impeachments, etc.
The State Duma is elected to a five-year term and consists of 450 deputies. A citizen of Russia who has reached the age of 21 and has the right to participate in elections can be elected as a deputy. The lower house adopts federal laws, approves the candidate for the office of Prime Minister nominated by the President, hears the annual reports of the Government on the results of its activities, etc. The same person shall not be a member of the Federation Council and simultaneously a deputy of the State Duma.
Executive power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the Government of the Russian Federation. It consists of the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. The head of state with the consent of the State Duma appoints the Prime Minister of the Russian Federation. When the new President is elected, the Prime Minister resigns the powers. The Government of the Russian Federation ensures the implementation of unified financial, credit, and monetary policies, manages federal property, takes measures to ensure the defense of the country and the rule of law, the rights and freedoms of citizens, etc.
Judicial power in the Russian Federation is exercised by the courts represented by judges, jurors, or arbitrators under the procedure established by law. No other bodies or persons shall administer justice. The Constitutional Court of Russia protects the basis of the constitutional system and administers other processes that arise from the Constitution.
Local self-government in the Russian Federation ensures the independent solution by the population of the issues of local importance, of possession, use and disposal of municipal property through a referendum or elections.
Labour relations are regulated in conformity with the Constitution of 1993 and the Labor Code of Russia of 2001. These documents set out such norms as the length of the working day, safe working conditions, social payments and pensions, mandatory leave, etc.
The Russian Federation has a well-developed system of social partnership. In the Russian government and in each federal subject, there are trilateral commissions composed of representatives of state authorities, employers' organizations, and trade unions. All the issues of social and labor relations in Russia fall under the competence of the social partnership bodies. The country has a system of all-Russian, sectoral, regional, and territorial agreements, as well as collective agreements at enterprises, which regulate the most important aspects of social and labor relations.
The Russian Federation has been a member of the International Labor Organization since its founding on 28 June 1919. By 2021, the Russian Federation has ratified 77 ILO conventions. Thus, the labor legislation of the Russian Federation complies with the UN standards.
In the Russian Federation, the formation of trade unions is regulated by the Law of 19.05.1995 No. 82-FZ (as amended on 30.12.2020) "On Public Associations", the Federal Law "On Trade Unions, Their Rights and Activities" (January 12, 1996, No. 10-FZ), the Labor Code of Russia, etc. Trade unions in Russia are free from both political control and the influence of the parties.
In Russia, most of the major industrial trade unions are members of the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Russia (Federatsiya Nezavisimykh Profsoyuzov Rossii, FNPR). This organization was founded on March 23, 1990. It affiliates 122 organizations, including territorial associations of trade union organizations of each federal subject. Trade unions affiliated with the FNPR account for over 20 million members. There are other trade unions in Russia, though they are much smaller.
The slogan of the union is "For fair economy!"
The main goals of FNPR:
- decent wages for workers;
- employment of people;
- a reliable system of social insurance;
- good cooperation between employees, employers, and the state;
- legal protection of workers;
- gender equality;
cooperation with international trade union organizations.