Trade Union Forum


General overview

Russia is the world’s largest country with total area of 17,075,400 km2. It is located in both Europe (about 23% of the country) and Asia (about 76%). The border between European and Asian parts runs down the Ural Mountains and the Kuma-Manych Depression. The Asian part includes Siberia, the Russian Far East, and the North Caucasus. The geographic center of Russia is located in the Krasnoyarsk Krai (territory of Krasnoyarsk). More than half of the country's area is occupied by plains and the largest of them are the East European (Russian) Plain, the West Siberian Plain, and the Central Siberian plateau. The Ural Mountains as well as other mountain complexes occupy about one third of the country's territory. The Caucasus Mountains stretch between the Black and the Caspian Seas. The South Siberian Mountains are located in the Asian part of the country. The Central Siberian plateau is framed by the northeastern mountains from the North-East. Along the Pacific Ocean lies the Far Eastern mountain range. The largest river is the Ob', usually viewed together with the Irtysh (5,410 km) and Chulym (4,565 km) tributaries. The highest peak is Mount Elbrus (5,642 m).  

Some unique geographical features are located in Russia. The Baikal is the deepest freshwater lake in the world. The Volga is the longest river in Europe, and the Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe. Extreme points: Northernmost island point – Cape Fligely, Franz Josef Land; the northernmost mainland – Cape Chelyuskin, Krasnoyarsk Krai; easternmost – Big Diomede Island (Ratmanov Island), Chukotka Autonomous Okrug; southernmost – near Mount Bazardyuzy, the Republic of Dagestan; westernmost – Narmeln, Vistula Spit, Kaliningrad Oblast.

 Russia covers 11 time zones.

 National borders

According to the Border Guard Service of Russia, the Russian border extends for 60,932 km. The country has a land border running 22,123 km, and maritime boundaries of 38,807 km. The maritime boundaries of Russia include those by seas and oceans:

- In the Baltic Sea – 126.1 km.

- In the Black Sea – 389.5 km.

- In the Pacific Ocean – 16997.9 km.

- In the Caspian Sea – 580 km.

- In the Arctic Ocean – 19724.1 km.

 Russia borders 18 countries. The length of Russia's borders with the neighboring States:

- Norway – 219.1 km 

- Finland – 1,325.8 km

- Estonia – 466.8 km

- Latvia – 270.5 km

- Lithuania – 288.4 km

- Poland – 236.3 km

- Belarus – 1239 km

- Ukraine – 2,660.6 km

- Abkhazia – 255.4 km

- Georgia – 572.5 km

- South Ossetia – 70 km

- Azerbaijan – 350 km

- Kazakhstan – 7,598.6 km

- China – 4,209.3 km

- Mongolia – 3,485 km

- North Korea – 39.4 km

- Japan – 194.3 km (maritime boundary only)

- USA – 49 km (maritime boundary only)


Wide temperature ranges and seasonal changes in warm and cold seasons are typical of Russia. In Russia, temperate climate prevails. The islands in the Arctic Ocean and the northern areas on the mainland are located in the Arctic and Subarctic zones. The Black Sea coast of Russia is located in the Subtropics.The average yearly temperature of the country is -5.5°C, but the difference in average temperatures varies significantly from region to region: it can be -23°C or +13°C depending on the region. The coldest place in Russia is Oymyakon, Sakha Republic. According to the data collected by Oymyakon airport, the average temperature in January usually drops to –46°C. The average temperature in July (the warmest month) rarely exceeds +15°C. The warmest region of Russia is the Krasnodar Krai, where the temperature in Sochi in January is +6.1°C on average. The average temperature in July is +23.6°C.